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Title: Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status

Abstract

A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and ismore » therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., Metals and Ceramics Div., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); USDOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
663271
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-13625
R&D Project: MDGA507; ON: DE98058149; BR: GA0102014; TRN: 99:000307
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-96OR22464
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Jun 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 21 NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; GALLIUM; METALLURGICAL EFFECTS; ZIRCALOY; FUEL-CLADDING INTERACTIONS; MIXED OXIDE FUELS; FUEL CANS; COMPATIBILITY; CORROSION; EMBRITTLEMENT; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; WATER COOLED REACTORS

Citation Formats

Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, Strizak, J P, King, J F, and Manneschmidt, E T. Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status. United States: N. p., 1998. Web. doi:10.2172/663271.
Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, Strizak, J P, King, J F, & Manneschmidt, E T. Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/663271
Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, Strizak, J P, King, J F, and Manneschmidt, E T. 1998. "Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/663271. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/663271.
@article{osti_663271,
title = {Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status},
author = {Wilson, D F and DiStefano, J R and Strizak, J P and King, J F and Manneschmidt, E T},
abstractNote = {A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.},
doi = {10.2172/663271},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/663271}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1998},
month = {6}
}