skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Citizen groups: a creative force

Abstract

The role of citizen groups is as important as that of government agencies when it comes to environmental policy in a democracy. These groups spend little money, yet they have initiated the major US environmental legislation of the past two decades. They are a recent, but effective, force in developing countries even though adversarial approaches are not often appropriate. The methods used by US environmental groups range from lobbying to confrontation in court. Groups outside the US tend to use consensus in democracies and information gathering in developing countries. While the groups' primary concerns are national in scope, international awareness and cooperation are growing. (DCK)

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC
OSTI Identifier:
6611238
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: EPA J.; (United States); Journal Volume: 7:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY; INTEREST GROUPS; PUBLIC POLICY; ADVERSARIES; DECISION MAKING; INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION; INTERVENORS; MEDIATION; PUBLIC OPINION; COOPERATION; GOVERNMENT POLICIES 290300* -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Environment, Health, & Safety

Citation Formats

Stoel, T. Citizen groups: a creative force. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Stoel, T. Citizen groups: a creative force. United States.
Stoel, T. 1981. "Citizen groups: a creative force". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6611238,
title = {Citizen groups: a creative force},
author = {Stoel, T.},
abstractNote = {The role of citizen groups is as important as that of government agencies when it comes to environmental policy in a democracy. These groups spend little money, yet they have initiated the major US environmental legislation of the past two decades. They are a recent, but effective, force in developing countries even though adversarial approaches are not often appropriate. The methods used by US environmental groups range from lobbying to confrontation in court. Groups outside the US tend to use consensus in democracies and information gathering in developing countries. While the groups' primary concerns are national in scope, international awareness and cooperation are growing. (DCK)},
doi = {},
journal = {EPA J.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 7:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 2
}
  • The operation of citizen advisory groups in the field of water resources planning is discussed. Three groups are examined: the Long Island Sound Study, the Southeastern New England Study, and the Flood Management Study of the Connecticut River Basin Program. The criteria and procedures used for member selection are surveyed. Functions of the groups include reviews of final plans and development of a basis for public support for plan implementation. 2 references, 1 table.
  • Citizen organizations can help engineers to set environmental objectives. Public opinion and responses to important issues can be obtained more effectively by working through existing organizations that through presently used public-participation mechanisms. The citizen organization should be treated as a consultant to ensure that the information gathered is properly collected, timely and reflective of a group's membership. The group should have a work program, specific tasks, and should be paid. The tasks that a group is asked to perform could include writing articles, holding meetings, and establishing suggested environmental objectives. 3 references.
  • Citizen activism is a fundamental aspect of this nation's culture. In environmental matters, citizen advocates play one of the most critical roles in defining, setting priorities for, and resolving the issues of our daily lives. Citizen groups are spoilers, to be sure, but matters would be worse for the absence of their essential voice. Beginning in the early 1970s, public nuisance law diminished in importance when Congress empowered citizen groups through a series of court-access provisions written into federal environmental laws. These provisions allow any person to act as a private attorney general for the US in a citizen suit,more » to ensure enforcement of the newly enacted environmental laws. Under a typical provision, the legal action is straightforward: a person files an action in federal court for force a discharger of pollutants to comply with the federal law. The new citizen attorney general only has to meet two criteria: injury, usually demonstrated by damage to some active use of the resource by the plaintiff; and an ongoing law violation, a simple affair because of other provisions that require extensive and publicly available self monitoring.« less
  • The effect of intermolecular {pi}-{pi} stacking on the electrical and mechanical properties of monolayer films molecules containing aromatic groups was studied using atomic force microscopy. Two types of aromatic molecules, (4-mercaptophenyl) anthrylacetylene (MPAA) and (4-mercaptophenyl)-phenylacetylene (MPPA) were used as model systems with different {pi}-{pi} stacking strength. Monolayer films of these molecules on Au(111) surfaces exhibited conductivities differing by more than one order of magnitude, MPAA being the most conductive and MPPA the least conductive. The response to compressive loads by the AFM tip was also found to be very different for both molecules. In MPAA films distinct molecular conductivity changesmore » are observed upon mechanical perturbation. This effect however was not observed on the MPPA film, where intermolecular {pi}-{pi} interactions are likely weaker.« less