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Title: Comparison of extraction techniques for munitions residues in soil

Abstract

Extraction of trinitrotoluene (TNT), trinitrobenzene (TNB), hexahydrotrinitrotriazine (RDX), and octahydrotetranitrotetrazocine (HMX) from two soils was studied in terms of process kinetics and recovery. Two solvents, acetonitrile and methanol, and four extraction techniques, Soxhlet, ultrasonic bath, mechanical shaker, and homogenizer-sonicator, were compared. The results were complex in that several interactions were found among analyte, method, and solvent. Acetonitrile was superior to methanol for RDX and HMX from the perspectives of kinetics and recovery, due in part to a much higher solubility. The Soxhlet and ultrasonic bath generally recovered more than the homogenizer or shaker, although a complicating factor was that all techniques were not necessarily at equilibrium. In terms of sample throughout, the ultrasonic bath and shaker offer advantages over the Soxhlet and homogenizer-sonicator. The ultrasonic bath generally approached equilibrium more rapidly than the shaker, so it appears to be the best overall choice. A spike-recovery study using fortified soil and the sonic bath method yielded complete recoveries of TNT and RDX at 1.6 and 2.3 ..mu..g/g, respectively.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH
OSTI Identifier:
6559592
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Anal. Chem.; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 59:9
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACETONITRILE; SOLVENT PROPERTIES; METHANOL; NITROBENZENE; SOLUBILITY; SOLVENT EXTRACTION; TNT; TRIAZINES; CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; ORDNANCE; RESIDUES; SOILS; ALCOHOLS; AZINES; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVES; DATA; EQUIPMENT; EXPLOSIVES; EXTRACTION; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; INFORMATION; KINETICS; MILITARY EQUIPMENT; NITRILES; NITRO COMPOUNDS; NUMERICAL DATA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; REACTION KINETICS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; 400105* - Separation Procedures; 510200 - Environment, Terrestrial- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Jenkins, T F, and Grant, C L. Comparison of extraction techniques for munitions residues in soil. United States: N. p., 1987. Web. doi:10.1021/ac00136a015.
Jenkins, T F, & Grant, C L. Comparison of extraction techniques for munitions residues in soil. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00136a015
Jenkins, T F, and Grant, C L. Fri . "Comparison of extraction techniques for munitions residues in soil". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00136a015.
@article{osti_6559592,
title = {Comparison of extraction techniques for munitions residues in soil},
author = {Jenkins, T F and Grant, C L},
abstractNote = {Extraction of trinitrotoluene (TNT), trinitrobenzene (TNB), hexahydrotrinitrotriazine (RDX), and octahydrotetranitrotetrazocine (HMX) from two soils was studied in terms of process kinetics and recovery. Two solvents, acetonitrile and methanol, and four extraction techniques, Soxhlet, ultrasonic bath, mechanical shaker, and homogenizer-sonicator, were compared. The results were complex in that several interactions were found among analyte, method, and solvent. Acetonitrile was superior to methanol for RDX and HMX from the perspectives of kinetics and recovery, due in part to a much higher solubility. The Soxhlet and ultrasonic bath generally recovered more than the homogenizer or shaker, although a complicating factor was that all techniques were not necessarily at equilibrium. In terms of sample throughout, the ultrasonic bath and shaker offer advantages over the Soxhlet and homogenizer-sonicator. The ultrasonic bath generally approached equilibrium more rapidly than the shaker, so it appears to be the best overall choice. A spike-recovery study using fortified soil and the sonic bath method yielded complete recoveries of TNT and RDX at 1.6 and 2.3 ..mu..g/g, respectively.},
doi = {10.1021/ac00136a015},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6559592}, journal = {Anal. Chem.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 59:9,
place = {United States},
year = {1987},
month = {5}
}