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Title: Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Abstract

This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6551566
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; INSECTS; ECOLOGY; SPOIL BANKS; LAND RECLAMATION; COAL MINING; COPPICES; HERBICIDES; HYMENOPTERA; KENTUCKY; LEPIDOPTERA; SURFACE MINING; ANIMALS; ARTHROPODS; FEDERAL REGION IV; FORESTS; INVERTEBRATES; MINING; NORTH AMERICA; PESTICIDES; USA 510500* -- Environment, Terrestrial-- Site Resource & Use Studies-- (-1989); 010900 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Thoeny, W.T.. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Thoeny, W.T.. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). United States.
Thoeny, W.T.. 1986. "Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6551566,
title = {Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)},
author = {Thoeny, W.T.},
abstractNote = {This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 1
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
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  • Black locust stands on reclaimed surface mines have accumulated a greater forest floor litter mass than nearby mixed hardwood forests. A three year intensive study was initiated to examine the detrital processes controlling differential litter accumulation. Two stands in north central West Virginia were compared, a black locust stand on a reclaimed surface mine and a nearby, mixed hardwood forest not disturbed by mining. Mean annual leaf litter deposition in the black locust stand was significantly less than that in the mixed hardwood stand. A decomposition experiment using litter bags showed that black locust leaf litter decomposed 36% more slowlymore » than sugar maple leaves after 24 months. Through a mass balance analysis, the reduced rate of litter decomposition for black locust leaves more than compensates for the reduced litter deposition and allows for a small yearly accumulation of litter in the forest floor which over time would become significant. Black locust and sugar maple leaves each decomposed at approximately the same rate in both stands. Factors controlling the rate of leaf litter decomposition were assessed by examining physical, biological, and chemical parameters in both stands. Substrate chemistry and not stand effects (microclimate and decomposer organism populations) was found to be the factor controlling the different rates of decomposition. Specifically, the high concentration of lignin in black locust leaf litter compared to sugar maple leaves inhibited microbial decomposition in the locust stand.« less
  • Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-squaremore » differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.« less
  • The effects of surface mining on the aquatic insect community of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky, were examined. Sampling stations were established above the mine, near the mine and below the mine and selected biological and physiochemical factors were examined at these stations. Station 3 (above mine) had a higher pH, higher alkalinity, lower mineral hardness, less siltation and less ferric hydroxide deposition than either Station 2 (at mine) or Station 1 (below mine). The greatest number of specimens (81%) was collected at Station 3. There were 19 mayfly and stonefly taxa represented at Station 3. The Shannon-Weaver diversity indexmore » was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Station 3 than at either Station 1 or Station 2. Examination of trophic relationships showed that shredders (chew and mine vascular plant tissue) were the most abundant group at Station 3, which may have been due to less ferric hydroxide deposition and thereby more vascular plant tissue available. Station 2 (at mine) had the least number of taxa collected, the lowest Shannon-Weaver diversity index value and predators were the most important (Importance Value) trophic group. Station 1 (below mine) was intermediate between Station 2 and Station 3, i.e., it seemed to be a recovery zone where the number of taxa collected began to increase and the physiochemical parameter values began to approach those of Station 3.« less
  • Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristicsmore » of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.« less
  • Eastern cottonwood, Virginia pine, and black locust growing on eastern Kentucky strip mine spoils for ten years were examined for aboveground biomass and plant nutrient accumulation. Two treatments, tree species grown with grasses and legumes and tree species grown alone were used and nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were determined. Total above ground biomass and nutrient accumulations were estimated for each tree species-treatment combination. Spoil and litter samples were also analyzed. No significant differences (P = 0.05) were found for total biomass accumulations. Nutrient accumulations were found to be different between species but not between treatments.more » As expected, black locust accumulated the greatest amount of N and eastern cottonwood the greatest amount of Ca and Mg. There were no differences in accumulations of P or K. Litter weights were found to be greatest under black locust followed by eastern cottonwood and Virginia pine. Litter nutrients were also greatest under black locust. Spoil nutrients showed no significant differences (P = 0.05) between species, however the grass-legume treatments of all species showed significantly lower K than species grown without grasses and legumes. The pH of spoil under eastern cottonwood was significantly higher, reflecting the greater amount of Ca and Mg.« less