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Title: Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status

Abstract

A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limitedmore » by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
654199
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-13505
ON: DE98054238; BR: GA0102014; TRN: 98:010373
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-96OR22464
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Nov 1997
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 21 NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; MIXED OXIDE FUELS; WATER COOLED REACTORS; GALLIUM; METALLURGICAL EFFECTS; ZIRCALOY; FUEL-CLADDING INTERACTIONS; CORROSION; EMBRITTLEMENT; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; FUEL CANS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Citation Formats

Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, and Strizak, J P. Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status. United States: N. p., 1997. Web. doi:10.2172/654199.
Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, & Strizak, J P. Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/654199
Wilson, D F, DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, and Strizak, J P. 1997. "Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/654199. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/654199.
@article{osti_654199,
title = {Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status},
author = {Wilson, D F and DiStefano, J R and King, J F and Manneschmidt, E T and Strizak, J P},
abstractNote = {A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.},
doi = {10.2172/654199},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/654199}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1997},
month = {11}
}