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Title: Injection-water quality

Abstract

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6498513
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Petroleum Technology; (USA); Journal Volume: 42:10
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; INJECTION WELLS; WATER QUALITY; OIL WELLS; WATERFLOODING; PERMEABILITY; RESERVOIR ROCK; WELL STIMULATION; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; FLUID INJECTION; STIMULATION; WELLS; 020300* - Petroleum- Drilling & Production

Citation Formats

Patton, C.C. Injection-water quality. United States: N. p., 1990. Web. doi:10.2118/21300-PA.
Patton, C.C. Injection-water quality. United States. doi:10.2118/21300-PA.
Patton, C.C. 1990. "Injection-water quality". United States. doi:10.2118/21300-PA.
@article{osti_6498513,
title = {Injection-water quality},
author = {Patton, C.C.},
abstractNote = {Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.},
doi = {10.2118/21300-PA},
journal = {Journal of Petroleum Technology; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 42:10,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month =
}
  • This paper describes an experimental study of formation damage associated with low-concentration particle invasion in water injection schemes. Depth-of-invasion results are presented, the importance of core preparation is stressed, and the results from conventional cut-faced plugs are compared with those from the broken-faced plugs used in this study.
  • This Standard describes 2 test methods for evaluating water quality for subsurface injection: Procedure A--Rate vs. Cumulative Volume (for water quality monitoring) and Procedure B--Suspended Solids Tests (for diagnosis or monitoring). The methods are intended to provide standardized water quality test procedures to help to determine injection water quality in the petroleum production industry. The test methods describe the apparatus required, test conditions, test procedure, reporting procedures, and supplementary tests. Interpretation of the results is not covered. The bibliography supplies a source of interpretation methods. This Standard is applicable only when precautions are observed to insure that the sample ismore » representative of the water in the system of interest.« less
  • Steam is injectd into oil wells to decrease oil viscosity and improve production rates and ultimate recovery. The effect of steam injection on oil-zone waters is not well-known. A survey of steaming practices in the Yorba Linda field in California was made. Extensive tests were run on a number of parameters for a shallow-zone well, and it was concluded that the water being produced was representative of the ground water in that zone. Except for silica concentration, steaming does not seem to affect water quality in the shallow zone of the Yorba Linda field.
  • North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.
  • Much information about an injection water can be determined from membrane filter tests. These tests can identify air leaks, mixing of incompatible waters, or severe localized corrosion areas--the latter by the quantity and type of corrosion by-product. Membrane filter tests, used with water analysis, microbiological examination and other tests, serve as a useful adjunct in the successful evaluation of field waters for injection and disposal. The apparatus consists of a pressurized lucite container, membrane filters, Tygon tubing, and a 1,000 ml graduated cylinder. In operation, the container is filled with water, a preweighed membrane filter is inserted, and the containermore » is pressurized from either a CO2 cartridge or a nitrogen bottle. During filtration, time intervals for a given volume of throughput are recorded. After filtration, the filter is removed and carefully washed with distilled water to remove water-soluble salts. The membrane filter is dried and weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. The total suspended material in the test water is found by substituting in the equation given. Membrane filter is then extracted with pentane or hexane, dried, and reweighed. From the quantitative data obtained in the determination of suspended solids, an estimate of the hydrocarbons in the suspended matter can be calculated.« less