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Title: Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States

Abstract

When designing and installing closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps systems, it is necessary to be aware of applicable environmental regulations. Within the United States, nearly half of the states have regulations specifying or restricting the use of particular antifreezes or other fluids within the ground loop of a ground-coupled heat pump system. A number of other states have regulations pending. While all of these regulations are based on the need to preserve groundwater and/or aquifer quality, the list of acceptable antifreezes varies among those states with specified fluids. Typical antifreezes in use include ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, brines, alcohols, and potassium acetate. Each of these has its benefits and drawbacks. The status of the regulations has been determined for all of the states. An overview of the regulations is presented in this paper, along with a summary of the states` concerns.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
649425
Report Number(s):
CONF-980123-
Journal ID: ISSN 0001-2505; TRN: IM9825%%38
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1998 ASHRAE winter meeting, San Francisco, CA (United States), 17-21 Jan 1998; Other Information: PBD: 1998; Related Information: Is Part Of ASHRAE transactions 1998. Volume 104, Part 1B: Symposium papers; PB: 1162 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS; USA; REGULATIONS; ANTIFREEZE; GROUND WATER

Citation Formats

Den Braven, K.R. Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
Den Braven, K.R. Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States. United States.
Den Braven, K.R. Thu . "Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_649425,
title = {Antifreeze acceptability for ground-coupled heat pump ground loops in the United States},
author = {Den Braven, K.R.},
abstractNote = {When designing and installing closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps systems, it is necessary to be aware of applicable environmental regulations. Within the United States, nearly half of the states have regulations specifying or restricting the use of particular antifreezes or other fluids within the ground loop of a ground-coupled heat pump system. A number of other states have regulations pending. While all of these regulations are based on the need to preserve groundwater and/or aquifer quality, the list of acceptable antifreezes varies among those states with specified fluids. Typical antifreezes in use include ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, brines, alcohols, and potassium acetate. Each of these has its benefits and drawbacks. The status of the regulations has been determined for all of the states. An overview of the regulations is presented in this paper, along with a summary of the states` concerns.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 1998},
month = {Thu Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 1998}
}

Conference:
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  • The ground coupling research program funded by the Systems Development Division of the Office of Solar Applications of the US Department of Energy studies the use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage element for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The goal of this research program is to determine the feasibility of ground coupling, and if feasibility is confirmed, to create handbooks which facilitate widespread application of ground coupling. The research program is outlined and the research projects currently in progress and how they fit into the program are described. Progress toward the program goal is evaluated.
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