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Title: Manual for applying fluidized bed combustion residue to agricultural lands

Abstract

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) is a process that reduces sulfur emissions from coal-fired electric-generating plants. The residue from this process is a mixture of alkaline oxides, calcium sulfate, and coal ash constituent. Since 1976, USDA/ARS has investigated the potential agriculture use of this residue. The investigations comprised an extensive series of laboratory, greenhouse, field plot, and animal feeding experiments. The best and safest use of AFBC residue in agriculture was as a substitute for agricultural lime. This report contains guidelines for applying AFBC residue to agricultural lands. 2 figs., 27 refs., 2 tabs.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Agricultural Research Service, Beckley, WV (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
6436270
Report Number(s):
DOE/MC/23160-T2; ARS-74
ON: DE89009949
DOE Contract Number:
AI21-86MC23160
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; PLANTS; NUTRIENTS; SOILS; LIMING; AGRICULTURE; CALCIUM OXIDES; COMBUSTION PRODUCTS; GYPSUM; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MANUALS; SOIL CHEMISTRY; SULFUR; TOXICITY; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM SULFATES; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMISTRY; COMBUSTION; DOCUMENT TYPES; ELEMENTS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; INDUSTRY; MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS; MATERIALS; MINERALS; NONMETALS; OXIDATION; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SULFATE MINERALS; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES; coal, gypsum, lime, recla­mation, soil acidity, sulfur; 010800* - Coal, Lignite, & Peat- Waste Management; 014000 - Coal, Lignite, & Peat- Combustion; 553000 - Agriculture & Food Technology

Citation Formats

Stout, W. L., Hern, J. L., Korcak, R. F., and Carlson, C. W. Manual for applying fluidized bed combustion residue to agricultural lands. United States: N. p., 1988. Web. doi:10.2172/6436270.
Stout, W. L., Hern, J. L., Korcak, R. F., & Carlson, C. W. Manual for applying fluidized bed combustion residue to agricultural lands. United States. doi:10.2172/6436270.
Stout, W. L., Hern, J. L., Korcak, R. F., and Carlson, C. W. Mon . "Manual for applying fluidized bed combustion residue to agricultural lands". United States. doi:10.2172/6436270. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6436270.
@article{osti_6436270,
title = {Manual for applying fluidized bed combustion residue to agricultural lands},
author = {Stout, W. L. and Hern, J. L. and Korcak, R. F. and Carlson, C. W.},
abstractNote = {Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) is a process that reduces sulfur emissions from coal-fired electric-generating plants. The residue from this process is a mixture of alkaline oxides, calcium sulfate, and coal ash constituent. Since 1976, USDA/ARS has investigated the potential agriculture use of this residue. The investigations comprised an extensive series of laboratory, greenhouse, field plot, and animal feeding experiments. The best and safest use of AFBC residue in agriculture was as a substitute for agricultural lime. This report contains guidelines for applying AFBC residue to agricultural lands. 2 figs., 27 refs., 2 tabs.},
doi = {10.2172/6436270},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1988},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1988}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) is a process that reduces sulfur emissions from coal-fired electric-generating plants. The residue from the process is a mixture of alkaline oxides, calcium sulfate, and coal ash constituent. Since 1976, USDA/ARS has investigated the potential agriculture use of the residue. The investigations comprised an extensive series of laboratory, greenhouse, field plot, and animal-feeding experiments. The best and safest use of AFBC residue in agriculture was as a substitute for agricultural lime. The report contains guidelines for appling AFBC residue to agricultural lands.
  • Results of x-ray diffraction analysis of an AFB residue sample from Combustion Engineering in Windsor, Connecticut reveals the presence of a high percentage of calcium carbonate in this source of spent bed residue. The particle size distribution of this material is identical to that of a spent bed residue sample from Alliance, Ohio. Initial evaluation of lime separation of AFB residue from Alliance, Ohio by means of a soil elutriator indicate limited value for this technique as a sole means of lime extraction; however, the elutriation system may be useful when employed in conjunction with other beneficiation techniques. Use ofmore » an x-ray hydration procedure is seen as an efficient means of identifying basic differences in the rate of hydration of different AFB residue sources. The results of a study of dimensional stability of cylindrical stabilized base specimens containing AFB residue indicate clearly that the majority of the volume expansion noted in the specimens occurs during initial curing within a 7 day period following the molding of the specimen. Early 7 day strength results from a comprehensive road base mix design study have indicated that excellent strength can be established in a number of formulae which were considered for a road demonstration. The experience gained from a recent field demonstration project in eastern Ohio proves that, with proper moisture control, stabilized road base compositions containing varying amounts of AFB residue can be successfully blended and placed in the field using conventional mixing, spreading, and compaction equipment. A recently completed demonstration of the use of AFB residue as a sorbent medium in a flue gas desulfurization system at Southern Illinois University has shown that the system operated with AFB residue in much the same manner as with commercial hydrated lime.« less
  • The free lime content of the spent bed residue sample from the Georgetown AFB boiler has higher than average free lime, total lime, and magnesium content, and smaller than normal proportion of silica, aluminum, and iron, when compared to previously analyzed spent bed residue samples from other sources. Investigation of the use of spent bed residue as a component of blended cement revealed expansive properties which make such use for conventional concrete construction purposes somewhat questionable. However, these blended cement mixes expand in a predictable manner, show no cracking, and do increase in strength over time, suggesting their application asmore » an expansive concrete for pressure gouting and stowage for mine backfilling. AFB residue/fly ash blends mixed with clay-silt soil exhibit strength development and volume stability characteristics that further recommend the application of such blends as a soil grouting medium. The information and experience obtained in the masonry block demonstration permit an accurate design of mix formulations using AFB residue with conventional block making equipment to meet current ASTM specifications for masonry block. Pre-treatment is necessary in order to develop high-carbon AFB fly ash for use in water treatment applications.« less
  • Because of its visual appearance and chemical composition, it is apparent that recent samples of AFT residue from Rivesville, West Virginia are actually a blend of spent bed residue and fly ash from the boiler. Dry stockpiling of AFT residue results in some reduction in particle size distribution of the material compared to its gradation as received. Preliminary indications are that processing of AFB residue in a conditioning plant, followed by stockpiling for a controlled period and eventual recrushing, may be sufficient preparation for use of the material in structural type applications. Data from the study of expansion bars andmore » test pads show that, for compositions in which the ratio of AFB residue to fly ash is less than 3:7, linear expansion is within generally acceptable levels, whereas compositions in which the ratio of AFB residue to fly ash is in excess of 2:1 show continued expansion in excess of tolerable limits over an extended period of time. The results of laboratory tests of concrete mixtures made with blended cements containing milled AFB residue have shown that detrimental volume expansion and increased water requirements, along with reduced strength development, are characteristic of these mixtures. On the basis of these observations, the use of blended cements containing AFB residue do not appear to be well suited for the production of Portland cement concrete. Stabilized trade wastes sludge samples must have a sufficient amount of additive (AFB residue ad fly ash) to result in a solids content in excess of 50% in order to develop a measurable amount of compressive strength when cured at 100/sup 0/F. Initial observations of blends of AFB fly ash and spent bed material show that good early strength development can be achieved with an equal weight blending of these materials.« less
  • Some significant differences in loss on ignition and calcium content have been noted between two AFB residue samples received from the fluidized bed unit in Windsor, Connecticut. Although the majority of the calcium in the first sample is present in a carbonate form, the calcium in the second sample appears to be present primarily as calcium oxide. Analysis of AFB fly ash samples from Alexandria, Virginia; Alliance, Ohio; and Windsor, Connecticut reveals significant variations in the gradation and chemical composition of these materials, particularly with respect to loss on ignition, silica, and calcium content. Test reslts for stabilized road basemore » compositions at various moisture levels have shown that peak strength development and maximum mix density occur at moisture contents somewhat greater than normal optimum moisture levels. Some significant volume expansions were observed in various types of stabilized road base mix samples. Increases in moisture content in excess of optimum compactible levels was not successful in alleviating the extent of volume change. Laboratory studies of Proctor-size cylinders and mortar bar specimens using materials from the Ohio road base demonstration confirmed that detrimental volume expansions were found in specimens containing Alliance AFB residue, while specimens containing Battelle AFB residue showed little or no expansion. Significant volume changes have also been observed in three of the four test plots containing various levels of AFB residue in stabilized road base formulations. The test plot containing a comparatively low level of AFB residue is the only one that has not shown obvious signs of expansion. Initial results of a computerized study of sludge dewatering and disposal using AFB residue indicate that potentially significant cost savings may be realized by the addition of AFB residue to wastewater sludge prior to disposal.« less