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Title: Artificial upwelling and mixing


The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.

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Conference: International workshop on artificial upwelling and mixing in coastal waters, Keelung (Taiwan), 20-21 Jun 1989
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Not Available. Artificial upwelling and mixing. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Not Available. Artificial upwelling and mixing. United States.
Not Available. 1989. "Artificial upwelling and mixing". United States. doi:.
title = {Artificial upwelling and mixing},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {The authors present results related to artificial upwelling and coastal mariculture using deep ocean water and mixing in coastal waters. They discuss the application of research results for marine waste disposal.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 1

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  • A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended vertically in the ocean. Cold, nutrient rich, but relatively fresh water from deep in the ocean flows up the shell side of the heat exchanger, and warm but relatively saline water from the surface flows down the tube side. The two flows exchange heat across the thin plastic walls of the tubes, maintaining a constant temperature difference along the heat exchanger. Themore » plastic tubes are protected by the concrete outer shell of the heat exchanger. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep and surface water due to their difference in salinity. This phenomenon was first recognized by the oceanographer Stommel, who termed it The Perpetual Salt Fountain. The heat transfer and flow rate as a function of tube number and diameter is analyzed and the size of the heat exchanger optimized for cost is determined for a given flow of nutrients for various locations. Reasonable sizes (outer diameter on the order of 5 m) are obtained. The incremental capital cost of the salinity-driven artificial upwelling is compared to the incremental capital cost and present value of the operating cost of an artificial upwell fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.« less
  • An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of themore » artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.« less
  • Engineering studies on the upwelling of deep, nutrient-rich ocean water to the surface for kelp nutrifaction are reported. A conceptual design analysis was performed on methods of upwelling deep ocean water and powering the upwelling system. Both computer analysis and a dye experiment were used to examine the dispersion of upwelled water. Results of analysis of the following candidate systems are given: Issacs buoy/propeller pump; wave turbine/propeller pump; windmill/propeller pump; wave vane/propeller pump; modified Issacs pump; and bellows pump. It is concluded that the wave turbine/propeller pump and bellows pump (pipe upwelling system) offer the greatest simplicity of design andmore » are expected to induce the lowest forces into the substrate structure. (JGB)« less
  • Increased population and rising expectations have put an enormous strain on the world's food and energy supplies. Petroleum reserves and land resource limitations severely hinder the expansion of conventional agriculture and animal husbandry. In tropical and subtropical areas of the oceans, the warm surface waters constitute the world's largest storage of solar energy. The underlying, cold deep water constitutes a cold sink, making it possible to generate mechanical energy by inserting a suitable heat engine between the warm and cold waters. The nitrate, phosphate, and other nutrients dissolved in deep sea water constitute the raw materials for plant growth whenmore » brought into the light at the surface. Extrapolation of results from small-scale experiments conducted at the St. Croix ''''Artificial Upwelling'' station indicate that this system could produce 20 times more algal protein per hectare than alfalfa can produce. A commercial feasibility test of a combined thermal sea power plant and mariculture operation utilizing deep sea water and sunshine as major raw materials is recommended. (3 diagrams, 4 graphs, 10 references, 5 tables)« less
  • Deep-sea water has two valuable properties: it is uniformly cold and, compared to surface water, it is rich in nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate which are necessary for plant growth. In tropical and subtropical areas, the temperature difference between the warm surface water and the cold deep water can be used for sea-thermal power generation or other cooling applications such as air-conditioning, ice-making, desalination, and cooling of refineries, power plants, etc. Once the deep water is brought to the surface, utilization of both the cold temperature and the nutrient content is likely to be more advantageous than the usemore » of only one of them. Claude demonstrated the technical feasibility of sea-thermal power generation in Cuba in 1930. The technical feasibility of artificial upwelling mariculture in the St. Croix installation has been demonstrated. Results to date demonstrate that the gross sales value of the potential mariculture yield from a given volume of deep-sea water is many times that of the sales value of the power which can be generated by the Claude process from the same volume of deep water. Utilizing both the nutrient content and the cold temperature of the deep water may therefore make sea-thermal power generation economically feasible.« less