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Title: Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

Abstract

The first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas using nearly equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium have been carried out on TFTR. At present the maximum fusion power of 10.7 MW, using 39.5 MW of neutral-beam heating, in a supershot discharge and 6.7 MW in a high-β p discharge following a current rampdown. The fusion power density in a core of the plasma is ≈ 2.8 MW m ₋3, exceeding that expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) at 1500 MW total fusion power. The energy confinement time, τ E, is observed to increase in D–T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the n i (0) T i(0) τ E product by 55%. The improvement in thermal confinement is caused primarily by a decrease in ion heat conductivity in both supershot and limiter-H-mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time to 0.27 s and enabled higher current operation in both supershot and high-β p discharges. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating of a D–T plasma, using the second harmonic of tritium, has been demonstrated. First measurements of the confined alpha particles have been performed and found to be in good agreement with TRANSP simulations. Initialmore » measurements of the alpha ash profile have been compared with simulations using particle transport coefficients from He gas puffing experiments. The loss of alpha particles to a detector at the bottom of the vessel is well described by the first-orbit loss mechanism. No loss due to alpha-particle-driven instabilities has yet been observed. D–T experiments on TFTR will continue to explore the assumptions of the ITER design and to examine some of the physics issues associated with an advanced tokamak reactor.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
64021
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76CH03073
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: PBD: Jun 1995
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; TFTR TOKAMAK; FUSION YIELD; THERMONUCLEAR DEVICES; DEUTERIUM; TRITIUM; HIGH-BETA PLASMA; ALPHA PARTICLES; CONFINEMENT TIME; POWER DENSITY; ICR HEATING

Citation Formats

McGuire, K. M., Adler, H., Alling, P., Ancher, C., Anderson, H., Anderson, J. L., Anderson, J W., Arunasalam, V., Ascione, G., Ashcroft, D., Barnes, C. W., Barnes, G., Batha, S., Bateman, G., Beer, M, Bell, M. G., Bell, R., Bitter, M., Blanchard, W., Bretz, N. L., Brunkhorst, C., Budny, R., Bush, C. E., Camp, R., Caorlin, M., Carnevale, H., Cauffman, S., Chang, Z., Chang, C. S., Cheng, C. Z., Chrzanowski, J., Collins, J., Coward, G., Cropper, M., Darrow, D. S, Daugert, R., DeLooper, J., Dendy, R., Dorland, W., Dudek, L., Duong, H., Durst, R., Efthimion, P. C., Ernst, D., Evenson, H., Fisch, N., Fisher, R., Fonck, R. J., Fredd, E., Fredrickson, E., Fromm, N., Fu, G. Y., Fujita, T., Furth, H. P., Garzotto, V., Gentile, C., Gilbert, J., Gioia, J., Gorelenkov, N., Grek, B., Grisham, L. R., Hammett, G., Hanson, G. R., Hawryluk, R. J., Heidbrink, W., Herrmann, H. W., Hill, K. W., Hosea, J., Hsuan, H., Hughes, M., Hulse, R., Janos, A., Jassby, D. L., Jobes, F. C., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, L. C., Kalish, M., Kamperschroer, J., Kesner, J., Kugel, H., Labik, G., Lam, N. T., LaMarche, P. H., Lawson, E., LeBlanc, B., Levine, J., Levinton, F. M., Loesser, D., Long, D., Loughlin, M. J., Machuzak, J., Majeski, R., Mansfield, D. K., Marmar, E. S., Marsala, R., Martin, A., Martin, G., Mazzucato, E., Mauel, M., McCarthy, M. P., McChesney, J., McCormack, B., McCune, D. C., McKee, G., Meade, D. M., Medley, S. S., Mikkelsen, D. R., Mirnov, S. V., Mueller, D., Murakami, M., Murphy, J. A., Nagy, A., Navratil, G. A., Nazikian, R., Newman, R., Norris, M., O`Connor, T., Oldaker, M., Ongena, J., Osakabe, M., Owens, D. K., Park, H., Park, W., Parks, P., Paul, S. F., Pearson, G., Perry, E., Persing, R., Petrov, M., Phillips, C. K., Phillips, M., Pitcher, S., Pysher, R., Qualls, A. L., Raftopoulos, S., Ramakrishnan, S., Ramsey, A., Rasmussen, D. A., Redi, M. H., Renda, G., Rewoldt, G., Roberts, D., Rogers, J., Rossmassler, R., Roquemore, A. L., Ruskov, E., Sabbagh, S. A., Sasao, M., Schilling, G., Schivell, J., Schmidt, G., Scillia, R., Scott, S. D., Semenov, I., Senko, T., Sesnic, S., Sissingh, R., Skinner, C. H., Snipes, J., Stencel, J., Stevens, J., Stevenson, T., Stratton, B. C., Strachan, J. D., Stodiek, W., Swanson, J., Synakowski, E., Takahashi, H., Tang, W., Taylor, G., Terry, J., Thompson, M. E., Tighe, W., Timberlake, J. R., Tobita, K., Towner, H. H., Tuszewski, M., Halle, A. Von, Vannoy, C., Viola, M., Goeler, S. Von, Voorhees, D., Walters, R. T., Wester, R., White, R., Wieland, R., Wilgen, J. B., Williams, M., Wilson, J. R., Winston, J., Wright, K., Wong, K. L., Woskov, P., Wurden, G. A., Yamada, M., Yoshikawa, S., Young, K. M., Zarnstorff, M. C., Zavereev, V., and Zweben, S. J.. Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1063/1.871303.
McGuire, K. M., Adler, H., Alling, P., Ancher, C., Anderson, H., Anderson, J. L., Anderson, J W., Arunasalam, V., Ascione, G., Ashcroft, D., Barnes, C. W., Barnes, G., Batha, S., Bateman, G., Beer, M, Bell, M. G., Bell, R., Bitter, M., Blanchard, W., Bretz, N. L., Brunkhorst, C., Budny, R., Bush, C. E., Camp, R., Caorlin, M., Carnevale, H., Cauffman, S., Chang, Z., Chang, C. S., Cheng, C. Z., Chrzanowski, J., Collins, J., Coward, G., Cropper, M., Darrow, D. S, Daugert, R., DeLooper, J., Dendy, R., Dorland, W., Dudek, L., Duong, H., Durst, R., Efthimion, P. C., Ernst, D., Evenson, H., Fisch, N., Fisher, R., Fonck, R. J., Fredd, E., Fredrickson, E., Fromm, N., Fu, G. Y., Fujita, T., Furth, H. P., Garzotto, V., Gentile, C., Gilbert, J., Gioia, J., Gorelenkov, N., Grek, B., Grisham, L. R., Hammett, G., Hanson, G. R., Hawryluk, R. J., Heidbrink, W., Herrmann, H. W., Hill, K. W., Hosea, J., Hsuan, H., Hughes, M., Hulse, R., Janos, A., Jassby, D. L., Jobes, F. C., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, L. C., Kalish, M., Kamperschroer, J., Kesner, J., Kugel, H., Labik, G., Lam, N. T., LaMarche, P. H., Lawson, E., LeBlanc, B., Levine, J., Levinton, F. M., Loesser, D., Long, D., Loughlin, M. J., Machuzak, J., Majeski, R., Mansfield, D. K., Marmar, E. S., Marsala, R., Martin, A., Martin, G., Mazzucato, E., Mauel, M., McCarthy, M. P., McChesney, J., McCormack, B., McCune, D. C., McKee, G., Meade, D. M., Medley, S. S., Mikkelsen, D. R., Mirnov, S. V., Mueller, D., Murakami, M., Murphy, J. A., Nagy, A., Navratil, G. A., Nazikian, R., Newman, R., Norris, M., O`Connor, T., Oldaker, M., Ongena, J., Osakabe, M., Owens, D. K., Park, H., Park, W., Parks, P., Paul, S. F., Pearson, G., Perry, E., Persing, R., Petrov, M., Phillips, C. K., Phillips, M., Pitcher, S., Pysher, R., Qualls, A. L., Raftopoulos, S., Ramakrishnan, S., Ramsey, A., Rasmussen, D. A., Redi, M. H., Renda, G., Rewoldt, G., Roberts, D., Rogers, J., Rossmassler, R., Roquemore, A. L., Ruskov, E., Sabbagh, S. A., Sasao, M., Schilling, G., Schivell, J., Schmidt, G., Scillia, R., Scott, S. D., Semenov, I., Senko, T., Sesnic, S., Sissingh, R., Skinner, C. H., Snipes, J., Stencel, J., Stevens, J., Stevenson, T., Stratton, B. C., Strachan, J. D., Stodiek, W., Swanson, J., Synakowski, E., Takahashi, H., Tang, W., Taylor, G., Terry, J., Thompson, M. E., Tighe, W., Timberlake, J. R., Tobita, K., Towner, H. H., Tuszewski, M., Halle, A. Von, Vannoy, C., Viola, M., Goeler, S. Von, Voorhees, D., Walters, R. T., Wester, R., White, R., Wieland, R., Wilgen, J. B., Williams, M., Wilson, J. R., Winston, J., Wright, K., Wong, K. L., Woskov, P., Wurden, G. A., Yamada, M., Yoshikawa, S., Young, K. M., Zarnstorff, M. C., Zavereev, V., & Zweben, S. J.. Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.871303
McGuire, K. M., Adler, H., Alling, P., Ancher, C., Anderson, H., Anderson, J. L., Anderson, J W., Arunasalam, V., Ascione, G., Ashcroft, D., Barnes, C. W., Barnes, G., Batha, S., Bateman, G., Beer, M, Bell, M. G., Bell, R., Bitter, M., Blanchard, W., Bretz, N. L., Brunkhorst, C., Budny, R., Bush, C. E., Camp, R., Caorlin, M., Carnevale, H., Cauffman, S., Chang, Z., Chang, C. S., Cheng, C. Z., Chrzanowski, J., Collins, J., Coward, G., Cropper, M., Darrow, D. S, Daugert, R., DeLooper, J., Dendy, R., Dorland, W., Dudek, L., Duong, H., Durst, R., Efthimion, P. C., Ernst, D., Evenson, H., Fisch, N., Fisher, R., Fonck, R. J., Fredd, E., Fredrickson, E., Fromm, N., Fu, G. Y., Fujita, T., Furth, H. P., Garzotto, V., Gentile, C., Gilbert, J., Gioia, J., Gorelenkov, N., Grek, B., Grisham, L. R., Hammett, G., Hanson, G. R., Hawryluk, R. J., Heidbrink, W., Herrmann, H. W., Hill, K. W., Hosea, J., Hsuan, H., Hughes, M., Hulse, R., Janos, A., Jassby, D. L., Jobes, F. C., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, L. C., Kalish, M., Kamperschroer, J., Kesner, J., Kugel, H., Labik, G., Lam, N. T., LaMarche, P. H., Lawson, E., LeBlanc, B., Levine, J., Levinton, F. M., Loesser, D., Long, D., Loughlin, M. J., Machuzak, J., Majeski, R., Mansfield, D. K., Marmar, E. S., Marsala, R., Martin, A., Martin, G., Mazzucato, E., Mauel, M., McCarthy, M. P., McChesney, J., McCormack, B., McCune, D. C., McKee, G., Meade, D. M., Medley, S. S., Mikkelsen, D. R., Mirnov, S. V., Mueller, D., Murakami, M., Murphy, J. A., Nagy, A., Navratil, G. A., Nazikian, R., Newman, R., Norris, M., O`Connor, T., Oldaker, M., Ongena, J., Osakabe, M., Owens, D. K., Park, H., Park, W., Parks, P., Paul, S. F., Pearson, G., Perry, E., Persing, R., Petrov, M., Phillips, C. K., Phillips, M., Pitcher, S., Pysher, R., Qualls, A. L., Raftopoulos, S., Ramakrishnan, S., Ramsey, A., Rasmussen, D. A., Redi, M. H., Renda, G., Rewoldt, G., Roberts, D., Rogers, J., Rossmassler, R., Roquemore, A. L., Ruskov, E., Sabbagh, S. A., Sasao, M., Schilling, G., Schivell, J., Schmidt, G., Scillia, R., Scott, S. D., Semenov, I., Senko, T., Sesnic, S., Sissingh, R., Skinner, C. H., Snipes, J., Stencel, J., Stevens, J., Stevenson, T., Stratton, B. C., Strachan, J. D., Stodiek, W., Swanson, J., Synakowski, E., Takahashi, H., Tang, W., Taylor, G., Terry, J., Thompson, M. E., Tighe, W., Timberlake, J. R., Tobita, K., Towner, H. H., Tuszewski, M., Halle, A. Von, Vannoy, C., Viola, M., Goeler, S. Von, Voorhees, D., Walters, R. T., Wester, R., White, R., Wieland, R., Wilgen, J. B., Williams, M., Wilson, J. R., Winston, J., Wright, K., Wong, K. L., Woskov, P., Wurden, G. A., Yamada, M., Yoshikawa, S., Young, K. M., Zarnstorff, M. C., Zavereev, V., and Zweben, S. J.. Sun . "Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.871303.
@article{osti_64021,
title = {Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*},
author = {McGuire, K. M. and Adler, H. and Alling, P. and Ancher, C. and Anderson, H. and Anderson, J. L. and Anderson, J W. and Arunasalam, V. and Ascione, G. and Ashcroft, D. and Barnes, C. W. and Barnes, G. and Batha, S. and Bateman, G. and Beer, M and Bell, M. G. and Bell, R. and Bitter, M. and Blanchard, W. and Bretz, N. L. and Brunkhorst, C. and Budny, R. and Bush, C. E. and Camp, R. and Caorlin, M. and Carnevale, H. and Cauffman, S. and Chang, Z. and Chang, C. S. and Cheng, C. Z. and Chrzanowski, J. and Collins, J. and Coward, G. and Cropper, M. and Darrow, D. S and Daugert, R. and DeLooper, J. and Dendy, R. and Dorland, W. and Dudek, L. and Duong, H. and Durst, R. and Efthimion, P. C. and Ernst, D. and Evenson, H. and Fisch, N. and Fisher, R. and Fonck, R. J. and Fredd, E. and Fredrickson, E. and Fromm, N. and Fu, G. Y. and Fujita, T. and Furth, H. P. and Garzotto, V. and Gentile, C. and Gilbert, J. and Gioia, J. and Gorelenkov, N. and Grek, B. and Grisham, L. R. and Hammett, G. and Hanson, G. R. and Hawryluk, R. J. and Heidbrink, W. and Herrmann, H. W. and Hill, K. W. and Hosea, J. and Hsuan, H. and Hughes, M. and Hulse, R. and Janos, A. and Jassby, D. L. and Jobes, F. C. and Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, L. C. and Kalish, M. and Kamperschroer, J. and Kesner, J. and Kugel, H. and Labik, G. and Lam, N. T. and LaMarche, P. H. and Lawson, E. and LeBlanc, B. and Levine, J. and Levinton, F. M. and Loesser, D. and Long, D. and Loughlin, M. J. and Machuzak, J. and Majeski, R. and Mansfield, D. K. and Marmar, E. S. and Marsala, R. and Martin, A. and Martin, G. and Mazzucato, E. and Mauel, M. and McCarthy, M. P. and McChesney, J. and McCormack, B. and McCune, D. C. and McKee, G. and Meade, D. M. and Medley, S. S. and Mikkelsen, D. R. and Mirnov, S. V. and Mueller, D. and Murakami, M. and Murphy, J. A. and Nagy, A. and Navratil, G. A. and Nazikian, R. and Newman, R. and Norris, M. and O`Connor, T. and Oldaker, M. and Ongena, J. and Osakabe, M. and Owens, D. K. and Park, H. and Park, W. and Parks, P. and Paul, S. F. and Pearson, G. and Perry, E. and Persing, R. and Petrov, M. and Phillips, C. K. and Phillips, M. and Pitcher, S. and Pysher, R. and Qualls, A. L. and Raftopoulos, S. and Ramakrishnan, S. and Ramsey, A. and Rasmussen, D. A. and Redi, M. H. and Renda, G. and Rewoldt, G. and Roberts, D. and Rogers, J. and Rossmassler, R. and Roquemore, A. L. and Ruskov, E. and Sabbagh, S. A. and Sasao, M. and Schilling, G. and Schivell, J. and Schmidt, G. and Scillia, R. and Scott, S. D. and Semenov, I. and Senko, T. and Sesnic, S. and Sissingh, R. and Skinner, C. H. and Snipes, J. and Stencel, J. and Stevens, J. and Stevenson, T. and Stratton, B. C. and Strachan, J. D. and Stodiek, W. and Swanson, J. and Synakowski, E. and Takahashi, H. and Tang, W. and Taylor, G. and Terry, J. and Thompson, M. E. and Tighe, W. and Timberlake, J. R. and Tobita, K. and Towner, H. H. and Tuszewski, M. and Halle, A. Von and Vannoy, C. and Viola, M. and Goeler, S. Von and Voorhees, D. and Walters, R. T. and Wester, R. and White, R. and Wieland, R. and Wilgen, J. B. and Williams, M. and Wilson, J. R. and Winston, J. and Wright, K. and Wong, K. L. and Woskov, P. and Wurden, G. A. and Yamada, M. and Yoshikawa, S. and Young, K. M. and Zarnstorff, M. C. and Zavereev, V. and Zweben, S. J.},
abstractNote = {The first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas using nearly equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium have been carried out on TFTR. At present the maximum fusion power of 10.7 MW, using 39.5 MW of neutral-beam heating, in a supershot discharge and 6.7 MW in a high-βp discharge following a current rampdown. The fusion power density in a core of the plasma is ≈ 2.8 MW m₋3, exceeding that expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) at 1500 MW total fusion power. The energy confinement time, τE, is observed to increase in D–T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the ni (0) Ti(0) τE product by 55%. The improvement in thermal confinement is caused primarily by a decrease in ion heat conductivity in both supershot and limiter-H-mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time to 0.27 s and enabled higher current operation in both supershot and high-βp discharges. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating of a D–T plasma, using the second harmonic of tritium, has been demonstrated. First measurements of the confined alpha particles have been performed and found to be in good agreement with TRANSP simulations. Initial measurements of the alpha ash profile have been compared with simulations using particle transport coefficients from He gas puffing experiments. The loss of alpha particles to a detector at the bottom of the vessel is well described by the first-orbit loss mechanism. No loss due to alpha-particle-driven instabilities has yet been observed. D–T experiments on TFTR will continue to explore the assumptions of the ITER design and to examine some of the physics issues associated with an advanced tokamak reactor.},
doi = {10.1063/1.871303},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/64021}, journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 6,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {1}
}