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Title: Phenomenological models

Abstract

The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/ER
OSTI Identifier:
6365078
Report Number(s):
PNL-SA-18754; CONF-9009267-3
ON: DE91004737
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Physical and chemical mechanisms in molecular radiation biology conference, Woods Hole, MA (USA), 3-7 Sep 1990
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ACUTE IRRADIATION; RADIATION HAZARDS; ANIMAL CELLS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; CELL CYCLE; CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS; DNA; DNA REPAIR; DOSE RATES; LET; RADIATION QUALITY; ACUTE EXPOSURE; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BIOLOGICAL RECOVERY; BIOLOGICAL REPAIR; ENERGY TRANSFER; HAZARDS; HEALTH HAZARDS; IRRADIATION; MUTATIONS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; RADIATION EFFECTS; RECOVERY; REPAIR; 560120* - Radiation Effects on Biochemicals, Cells, & Tissue Culture

Citation Formats

Braby, L.A. Phenomenological models. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Braby, L.A. Phenomenological models. United States.
Braby, L.A. 1990. "Phenomenological models". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6365078.
@article{osti_6365078,
title = {Phenomenological models},
author = {Braby, L.A.},
abstractNote = {The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 9
}

Conference:
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  • A phenomenological zero-dimensional spray penetration model was developed for diesel-type conditions for a constant volume chamber. The spray was modeled as a protruding cone which is well-mixed at its tip after passing through initial primary and secondary breakup zones. The resulting cone model is strictly dependent on injection parameters: density ratio, injection and chamber pressure, nozzle characteristics, and cone angle. The proposed model was compared with data from three different sources and performed well in most cases except for low density environments.
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  • In previous years, a suite of interim models had been developed for the CONTAIN code for analyzing direct containment heating (DCH) accidents. The initial development and application of these DCH models are described in a previous WRS paper. While useful, these interim models were incomplete and were highly parametric. The parametric nature of the interim CONTAIN DCH models was necessary at the time because of the lack of relevant DCH experimental data, and to facilitate sensitivity studies aimed at improving our understanding of the most important governing processes in a DCH event. However, today our understanding of DCH phenomenology ismore » significantly improved from when the interim DCH models were developed. This understanding largely stems from recently completed NRC-sponsored DCH experiments at Sandia National Laboratories and Argonne National Laboratory. New models have been developed and added to the CONTAIN code for modeling DCH events to reflect this improvement in our understanding of DCH. The purpose of this paper is to describe the new DCH models in CONTAIN. A demonstration of the new models by comparing simplified calculations against relevant DCH test data will also be presented in this paper. This paper is an extension of the preliminary descriptions of the DCH model improvements presented in the 19th WRS paper. The new models that have been added to CONTAIN for analyzing DCH are briefly discussed below. The following paragraphs also include brief discussions of the motivation and/or basis for the developed improvement. The models are described in greater detail in the full paper.« less