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Title: Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

Abstract

Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from impropermore » picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Miami Univ., FL (USA). Cooperative Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Studies
OSTI Identifier:
6302010
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6302010; Legacy ID: TI86900193
Report Number(s):
TR-EL-82-4/82-11.32
ON: TI86900193
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; MOLLUSCS; ECOLOGY; CALIFORNIA; COASTAL WATERS; FISHERIES; HABITAT; PREDATOR-PREY INTERACTIONS; TAXONOMY; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; BIOLOGY; FEDERAL REGION IX; INVERTEBRATES; NORTH AMERICA; SURFACE WATERS; USA 520100* -- Environment, Aquatic-- Basic Studies-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Ault, J.S. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. ). United States: N. p., 1985. Web.
Ault, J.S. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. ). United States.
Ault, J.S. Fri . "Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )". United States.
@article{osti_6302010,
title = {Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )},
author = {Ault, J.S.},
abstractNote = {Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1985},
month = {Fri Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1985}
}

Technical Report:
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