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Title: Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

Abstract

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6281733
Report Number(s):
PNL-4767
ON: DE85002873
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Portions are illegible in microfiche products. Original copy available until stock is exhausted
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS; REINJECTION; AHUACHAPAN GEOTHERMAL FIELD; BRINES; CARBONATES; CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL FIELD; ECONOMICS; FLUID INJECTION; INJECTION WELLS; LARDERELLO GEOTHERMAL FIELD; NEW ZEALAND; PHILIPPINES; PIPELINES; PRECIPITATION; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SILICA; SULFIDES; USA; WASTE DISPOSAL; ASIA; AUSTRALASIA; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CHALCOGENIDES; DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; FLUIDS; GEOTHERMAL FIELDS; ISLANDS; MANAGEMENT; MINERALS; NORTH AMERICA; OXIDE MINERALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SILICON COMPOUNDS; SILICON OXIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WELLS; Geothermal Legacy; 150600* - Geothermal Energy- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Kindle, C.H., Mercer, B.W., Elmore, R.P., Blair, S.C., and Myers, D.A.. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options. United States: N. p., 1984. Web. doi:10.2172/6281733.
Kindle, C.H., Mercer, B.W., Elmore, R.P., Blair, S.C., & Myers, D.A.. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options. United States. doi:10.2172/6281733.
Kindle, C.H., Mercer, B.W., Elmore, R.P., Blair, S.C., and Myers, D.A.. Sat . "Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options". United States. doi:10.2172/6281733. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6281733.
@article{osti_6281733,
title = {Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options},
author = {Kindle, C.H. and Mercer, B.W. and Elmore, R.P. and Blair, S.C. and Myers, D.A.},
abstractNote = {The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.},
doi = {10.2172/6281733},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1984},
month = {Sat Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1984}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The NOXSO Process is a dry, regenerable system capable of removing both SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from flue gas generated by coal-fired utility boilers. Adsorption is accomplished at the normal post-airheater flue gas temperatures of around 120/sup 0/C, and SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ are simultaneously removed from the flue gas in a single step. Regeneration of the sorbent is accomplished at elevated temperature (greater than or equal to 550/sup 0/C) using any of a number of reducing agents, e.g. hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, etc. Hydrogen sulfide was used in all the tests reported here. On regeneration,more » the compounds formed by the adsorption of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ are reduced to elemental sulfur and nitrogen. The NOXSO test program has the ultimate goal of determining the commercial potential of the NOXSO process. The specific test program conducted involves three basic tasks: fundamental studies to determine the process chemistry, kinetics and the influence of various parameters; sorbent studies to determine sorbent properties that contribute to low attrition and efficient sorption; and process studies that determine the physical size and the costs of a commercial facility. The report is organized accordingly. Chapter 2 is an Executive Summary of the entire report. Chapter 3 describes in detail the test facility, equipment and test procedures. Chapter 4 provides a detailed discussion of the process chemistry. Chapter 5 presents the kinetic model and supporting data. Chapter 6 gives the sorbent attrition data and ideas to explain the excellent performance of the NOXSO sorbent. Chapter 7 presents design guidelines for critical NOXSO process equipment. Chapter 8 discusses the economic study conducted by Science Applications, Inc. and the Appendix reproduces the SAI report. 5 references, 50 figures, 22 tables.« less
  • This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.
  • This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.
  • The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs),more » for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.« less
  • Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decreasemore » of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.« less