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Title: The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water columnar ice under biaxial loading

Abstract

The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water, columnar ice was investigated under biaxial loading at a strain rate of [dot [epsilon]] = 10[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] at temperatures of [minus]10 and [minus]40C. Tests were performed through proportional loading over the range 0[<=]R<1 where R is the ratio of the minor to major compressive stress, i.e. R = [sigma][sub 2]/[sigma][sub 1]. Two types of confinement were considered, across the long axis of the columnar grains (type-A) and along the columns (type-B). For both types the major stress was orthogonal to the columns. The results reveal two failure regimes under cross-column loading: the failure stress first increases rapidly with increasing R[sub A] in the range 0 [<=] R[sub A] [<=] R[sub t], and then decreases as R[sub A] increases further. The transition ratio, R[sub t], decreases from [approximately]0.2 at [minus]10C to [approximately]0.1 at [minus]40C. Correspondingly, the failure mode changes from splitting along the columns along the loading direction at zero confinement to shear faulting in the loading plane at 0 < R[sub A] [<=] R[sub t] to a combined mode of splitting across the columns and shear faulting out of the loading plane at R[sub A] > R[sub t]. The failure envelope at bothmore » temperatures resembles a truncated Coulomb envelope. Under along-column confinement (type-B) neither the failure stress nor the failure mode depends upon the confining stress. High-speed photography and thin-section examinations revealed that wing cracking and localized fragmentation are important elements in the failure process. The observations are explained in terms of two failure mechanisms; viz. frictional crack sliding and contact tensile fractures.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6269482
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Acta Metallurgica et Materialia; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 41:1; Journal ID: ISSN 0956-7151
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ICE; FAILURES; BRITTLENESS; COMPRESSION; CRACKS; DEFORMATION; IMAGES; MATERIALS TESTING; STRAIN RATE; TENSILE PROPERTIES; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; TESTING; 360603* - Materials- Properties

Citation Formats

Smith, T R, and Schulson, E M. The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water columnar ice under biaxial loading. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.1016/0956-7151(93)90347-U.
Smith, T R, & Schulson, E M. The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water columnar ice under biaxial loading. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-7151(93)90347-U
Smith, T R, and Schulson, E M. Fri . "The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water columnar ice under biaxial loading". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-7151(93)90347-U.
@article{osti_6269482,
title = {The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water columnar ice under biaxial loading},
author = {Smith, T R and Schulson, E M},
abstractNote = {The brittle compressive failure of fresh-water, columnar ice was investigated under biaxial loading at a strain rate of [dot [epsilon]] = 10[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] at temperatures of [minus]10 and [minus]40C. Tests were performed through proportional loading over the range 0[<=]R<1 where R is the ratio of the minor to major compressive stress, i.e. R = [sigma][sub 2]/[sigma][sub 1]. Two types of confinement were considered, across the long axis of the columnar grains (type-A) and along the columns (type-B). For both types the major stress was orthogonal to the columns. The results reveal two failure regimes under cross-column loading: the failure stress first increases rapidly with increasing R[sub A] in the range 0 [<=] R[sub A] [<=] R[sub t], and then decreases as R[sub A] increases further. The transition ratio, R[sub t], decreases from [approximately]0.2 at [minus]10C to [approximately]0.1 at [minus]40C. Correspondingly, the failure mode changes from splitting along the columns along the loading direction at zero confinement to shear faulting in the loading plane at 0 < R[sub A] [<=] R[sub t] to a combined mode of splitting across the columns and shear faulting out of the loading plane at R[sub A] > R[sub t]. The failure envelope at both temperatures resembles a truncated Coulomb envelope. Under along-column confinement (type-B) neither the failure stress nor the failure mode depends upon the confining stress. High-speed photography and thin-section examinations revealed that wing cracking and localized fragmentation are important elements in the failure process. The observations are explained in terms of two failure mechanisms; viz. frictional crack sliding and contact tensile fractures.},
doi = {10.1016/0956-7151(93)90347-U},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6269482}, journal = {Acta Metallurgica et Materialia; (United States)},
issn = {0956-7151},
number = ,
volume = 41:1,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {1}
}