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Title: Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site

Abstract

Several hydrostratigraphic classification schemes have been devised to describe the hydrogeology at the Savannah River Site SRS. Central to these schemes is the one-to-one fixed relationship between the hydrostratigraphic units and the lithostratigraphic units currently favored for the Site. This fixed relationship has proven difficult to apply in studies of widely separated locations at the Site due to the various facies observed in the updip Coastal Plain sequence. A detailed analysis and synthesis of the geophysical, core, and hydrologic data available from more than 164 deep wells from 23 cluster locations both on the Site and in the surrounding region was conducted to provide the basis for a hydrostratigraphic classification scheme which could be applied to the entire SRS region. As a result, an interim hydrostratigraphic classification was developed that defines the regional hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the Site (Aadland et al., 1990). The hydrostratigraphic code accounts for and accommodates the rapid lateral variation in lithofacies observed in the region, and eliminates all formal'' connection between the hydrostratigraphic nomenclature and the lithostratigraphic nomenclature. The code is robust and can be made as detailed as is needed to characterize the aquifer units and aquifer zones described in Site-specific studies.more » 15 refs., 2 figs.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/DP
OSTI Identifier:
6250054
Report Number(s):
WSRC-MS-90-282; CONF-9011173-2
ON: DE91006521
DOE Contract Number:
AC09-89SR18035
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference on coastal plains geology, Hilton Head, SC (USA), 6-11 Nov 1990
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AQUIFERS; CLASSIFICATION; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; GEOLOGY; HYDROLOGY; CRETACEOUS PERIOD; DRILL CORES; GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS; GROUND WATER; LITHOLOGY; SEDIMENTS; SITE CHARACTERIZATION; STRATIGRAPHY; TERTIARY PERIOD; CENOZOIC ERA; GEOLOGIC AGES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; MESOZOIC ERA; NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SURVEYS; US AEC; US DOE; US ERDA; US ORGANIZATIONS; WATER; 580000* - Geosciences; 540250 - Environment, Terrestrial- Site Resource & Use Studies- (1990-); 540350 - Environment, Aquatic- Site Resource & Use Studies- (1990-)

Citation Formats

Aadland, R.K. Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Aadland, R.K. Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site. United States.
Aadland, R.K. Mon . "Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6250054.
@article{osti_6250054,
title = {Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site},
author = {Aadland, R.K.},
abstractNote = {Several hydrostratigraphic classification schemes have been devised to describe the hydrogeology at the Savannah River Site SRS. Central to these schemes is the one-to-one fixed relationship between the hydrostratigraphic units and the lithostratigraphic units currently favored for the Site. This fixed relationship has proven difficult to apply in studies of widely separated locations at the Site due to the various facies observed in the updip Coastal Plain sequence. A detailed analysis and synthesis of the geophysical, core, and hydrologic data available from more than 164 deep wells from 23 cluster locations both on the Site and in the surrounding region was conducted to provide the basis for a hydrostratigraphic classification scheme which could be applied to the entire SRS region. As a result, an interim hydrostratigraphic classification was developed that defines the regional hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the Site (Aadland et al., 1990). The hydrostratigraphic code accounts for and accommodates the rapid lateral variation in lithofacies observed in the region, and eliminates all formal'' connection between the hydrostratigraphic nomenclature and the lithostratigraphic nomenclature. The code is robust and can be made as detailed as is needed to characterize the aquifer units and aquifer zones described in Site-specific studies. 15 refs., 2 figs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1990},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1990}
}

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  • The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocenemore » Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study.« less
  • A two-dimensional cross-sectional model is being developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan, Lower Floridan, Dublin, and Midville aquifers near the Department of Energy, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina and Georgia. The objective is to evaluate the relation of the Savannah River to the ground-water flow system under present and hypothetical conditions. The US Geological Survey Modular Finite Element model (MODFE) will be applied to simulate steady-state flow in an isotropic, heterogeneous medium. Flow nets were drawn using representative potentiometric surfaces to locate a probably path that ground water would take in the multiaquifer flow system. Amore » corridor with a set of coincident flow lines was delineated for all aquifers, except the Midville, where a minor oblique flow component exists. The cross-section is located along a representative flow line in the middle of the flow-path corridor. The line of section crosses the Savannah River and is 11.6 miles long in South Carolina and 5.7 miles long in Georgia. The hydrogeologic framework for the model is based on borehole data collected from wells near the line of section. Boundary conditions to be simulated in the model are: a specified head boundary at the top of the cross section (water table), a no-flow boundary at the bottom (basement rocks), a specified head at the eastern side in South Carolina, and a head-dependent flux boundary at the western side in Georgia. The model will be calibrated to a period of time during 1980-1990 during which the system is thought to have been in equilibrium, and verified against another set of hydrologic conditions.« less
  • Maps showing the water-table and potentiometric surfaces of four Coastal Plain aquifers in sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age were developed as part of an evaluation of ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy, Savannah River Site. Water-table or potentiometric-surface maps were prepared for the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, the Dublin aquifer system, and the Midville aquifer system. Over much of the area, the Upper Floridan aquifer is at or near land surface and is mostly under water-table conditions. The other three aquifers are deeply buried over most of the studymore » area and are mostly under confined conditions. The mapped area straddles the Savannah River and covers a 4,750 square-mile area in South Carolina and Georgia. The potentiometric surfaces were plotted using water-level data from 342 wells measured during May 1--12, 1992, together with pressure-head data from 10 flowing wells in the Savannah River Valley measured in September 1993. In areas where the aquifers are unconfined, the altitude of the water table was mapped using measured ground-water levels, stream-stage from 89 sties, and estimated ground-water levels determined from a linear regression model in areas of few data. Altitudes of aquifer tops and bottoms were compared to the altitude of the open interval in each well in which the water level was measured in order to assign waterlevel data from the well to a specific aquifer or aquifer system. This was done by using a geographic information system.« less
  • Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to providemore » the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed.« less
  • Time-structure, isochron, and reflection amplitude maps were constructed from 270 km of reprocessed seismic reflection data recorded at the Savannah river Site (SRS), South Carolina. These maps indicate the presence of three major basement blocks bounded by northeast trending faults that penetrate upward from basement into the Atlantic coastal Plain sediments. Most of these faults appear to be Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures reactivated in compression. The northernmost fault block is bounded on the southeast by the Upper Tree Runs fault (UTRF), a high-angle southeast dipping reverse fault, which appears to be a reactivated splay from a major decollement (Augusta faultmore » ) at 5 km depth. The Pen Branch fault (PBF) is the main throughgoing fault in a 3 km wide, 25 km long, fault zone consisting of subparallel fault segments that are commonly down-to-the-northwest north of PBF and down-to-the-southeast south of PBF. The offset of time horizons by PBF increases to the northeast and the shallowest resolvable time horizons appear to be deformed across its length. The Steel Creek fault, an antithetic fault to PBF, controls the drainage of Pen Branch, a tributary stream to the Savannah River. The third fault block is bounded by the Pen Branch fault on the northwest. The southeast boundary of this southernmost block is unknown, but could be defined by the Martin fault, a down-to-the-southeast fault located south of SRS that appears to be a major structure. Interpretation of isochron maps and analysis of trend surfaces fitted to reflection time horizons suggest that faulting was ongoing through the Late Cretaceous and was accompanied by tilting of the fault blocks, possibly associated with the transfer of strain from the UTRF to the PBF.« less