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Title: Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants

Abstract

In 1986 the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) established the Forest Response Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposition and associated pollutants on forests. Modeling studies were developed in parallel with both field studies on the pattern and trends of forest condition and physiological studies of seedlings, saplings, and branches of mature trees. The goals of the modeling effort were to simulate the dynamics of the processes by which acidic deposition and ozone affect tree physiological processes and therefore lead to changes in growth. Results from models of the physiological function of leaves, branches, roots, xylem, and canopies are presented here. These models illustrate three aspects of the dynamics of these processes. First, growth and the effects of pollutants are stochastic processes; that is, they vary randomly over time. The models help to account for the large amount of variability seen in normal field conditions. Second, some physiological processes can compensate for the effects of acidic deposition or ozone. Third, pollutants may have more than one effect on tree growth, and these effects may be synergistic. The potential nonlinearities and the variabilities demonstrated by these models lead to the conclusions that forest health effects may be developingmore » that are not yet apparent; and for regulation of acidic deposition and associated pollutants to have a detectable effect, regulatory changes will probably have to be of substantial magnitude.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
NSI Technology Services Corp., Corvallis, OR (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6183039
Report Number(s):
PB-91-136572/XAB
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ACID RAIN; TOXICITY; FORESTS; PRODUCTIVITY; OZONE; POLLUTANTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; TREES; SENSITIVITY; AIR POLLUTION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NAPAP; STOCHASTIC PROCESSES; SYNERGISM; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; PLANTS; POLLUTION; RAIN 540120* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 560300 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 010900 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Kiester, A.R., Ford, E.D., Avery, A., Gay, C., and Droessler, T. Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Kiester, A.R., Ford, E.D., Avery, A., Gay, C., & Droessler, T. Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants. United States.
Kiester, A.R., Ford, E.D., Avery, A., Gay, C., and Droessler, T. 1990. "Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6183039,
title = {Projection of response of trees and forests to acidic deposition and associated pollutants},
author = {Kiester, A.R. and Ford, E.D. and Avery, A. and Gay, C. and Droessler, T.},
abstractNote = {In 1986 the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) established the Forest Response Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposition and associated pollutants on forests. Modeling studies were developed in parallel with both field studies on the pattern and trends of forest condition and physiological studies of seedlings, saplings, and branches of mature trees. The goals of the modeling effort were to simulate the dynamics of the processes by which acidic deposition and ozone affect tree physiological processes and therefore lead to changes in growth. Results from models of the physiological function of leaves, branches, roots, xylem, and canopies are presented here. These models illustrate three aspects of the dynamics of these processes. First, growth and the effects of pollutants are stochastic processes; that is, they vary randomly over time. The models help to account for the large amount of variability seen in normal field conditions. Second, some physiological processes can compensate for the effects of acidic deposition or ozone. Third, pollutants may have more than one effect on tree growth, and these effects may be synergistic. The potential nonlinearities and the variabilities demonstrated by these models lead to the conclusions that forest health effects may be developing that are not yet apparent; and for regulation of acidic deposition and associated pollutants to have a detectable effect, regulatory changes will probably have to be of substantial magnitude.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 9
}

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  • The paper is divided into five sections. The first section, the Introduction, presents the background and rationale for selection of the key pollutants to be included, the criteria for selection of studies for discussion in the other sections, and major issues common to the selected pollutants. The section is intended to facilitate understanding of material presented in later sections and to avoid excess duplication. Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe the health effects, air quality, ambient exposures, and risk estimates. Section 6 summarizes and integrates the key issues within Sections 2 through 5 and presents conclusions and health riskmore » estimates. Section 7 briefly describes outstanding knowledge gaps and suggests the research targeted to resolve them. Section 8 contains the references. The front matter contains definitions of the key terms used.« less
  • The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program created the Forest Response Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposition on trees and forests in regions of the United States. Research from the FRP and other programs is summarized in four Major Program Output documents that address policy questions regarding forest condition, mechanisms of effects of air pollutants, and projected responses of pollutants on forests. The document summarizes information available up to February, 1990. The major findings include several observations on mechanisms of effect. There is evidence that supports the hypothesis that acidic deposition alters soil chemical properties.
  • The primary objective of the Atmospheric Acidity Protection Program (TAAPS) Study is to quantify the transport of air pollutants from the San Joaquin Valley to forests and alpine watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. The study examines the atmospheric transport of simultaneous tracer releases from major source areas and the impact which occurs at areas within the Sierra Nevada Range. With the above objective in mind, the tracer experiments were designed to specifically accomplish the following tasks: (1) Determine the source attribution from Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield to pollutant impacts in the Sierra Nevada Range; (2) Identify pollutant pathways from themore » San Joaquin Valley (SJV) into the Sierra Nevada Range. Secondary technical objectives were anticipated with the conduct of this program. A better understanding of how pollutants are transported within the SJV may be an outcome of this program data. In the mesoscale, one may learn how air exchanges occur from the valley floor to upper Sierra regions. Impact severity may be addressed regarding leeward areas of the Sierra, such as the Owens Valley and desert regions.« less
  • Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggestmore » that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of ozone and acidic deposition on mixed conifer forests in the San Bernardino mountains of southern California. The primary objectives were to acquire a long-term data base of specified accuracy, precision and validity for atmospheric pollution concentration, local and stand meteorology, wet and dry deposition fluxes to forest canopies, and biological responses of forest vegetation and soils. Some data were used to parameterize and run simulations with the Big Leaf model. Futhermore, to document the procedures used in the project, complete descriptions of measurement techniques, research protocolsmore » and quality assurace objectives were compiled in a companion document to the final report. This multi-disciplinary study provides a data base describing many attributes of a California mixed conifer forest ecosystem exposed to a moderate level of gas and particle deposition compared to the highest possible levels in the western portions of the San Bernardino mountains.« less