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Title: Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon

Abstract

There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6143118
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 41:5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AFLATOXIN; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; NEOPLASMS; HISTOLOGY; CELL PROLIFERATION; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; EGGS; GREAT LAKES; LIVER; MORTALITY; SALMON; ANADROMOUS FISHES; ANIMALS; ANTIGENS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; BODY; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM; DISEASES; FISHES; GLANDS; LAKES; MATERIALS; ORGANS; SURFACE WATERS; TOXIC MATERIALS; TOXINS; VERTEBRATES; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Black, J.J., Maccubbin, A.E., Myers, H.K., and Zeigel, R.F. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon. United States: N. p., 1988. Web. doi:10.1007/BF02021027.
Black, J.J., Maccubbin, A.E., Myers, H.K., & Zeigel, R.F. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon. United States. doi:10.1007/BF02021027.
Black, J.J., Maccubbin, A.E., Myers, H.K., and Zeigel, R.F. 1988. "Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon". United States. doi:10.1007/BF02021027.
@article{osti_6143118,
title = {Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon},
author = {Black, J.J. and Maccubbin, A.E. and Myers, H.K. and Zeigel, R.F.},
abstractNote = {There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.},
doi = {10.1007/BF02021027},
journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 41:5,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month =
}
  • Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, Erie, or Huron were found to suffer epizootics of thyroid hyperplasia and goiters which appeared to have an environmental etiology. There were 13-fold differences in goiter prevalence within the Great Lakes, and the differences in goiter frequency were correlated with the degree of thyroid hyperplasia. A means of assessing the degree of thyroid hyperplasia (thyroid index) is described, and the derived index was used to facilitate statistical interlake and interspecies comparisons. Despite the hyperplastic (or goitered) condition in all prespawning or spawning Great Lakes salmon, serum thyroidmore » hormone levels were generally higher than in prespawning coho salmon from the Fraser River, British Columbia, indicating that the Great Lakes fish were not necessarily hypothyroid. The hyperplastic lesions appear to undergo progressive changes: (a) large follicles, partly colloid depleted, surrounded by cuboidal epithelial cells; (b) small follicles, largely colloid depleted, surrounded by columnar epithelial cells (in this form, the follicles commonly assume a trabeculate arrangement); (c) ''microfollicles'' with greatly enlarged columnar epithelial cells encompassing very small follicles; (d) apparently afollicular lesions with little or no colloid in evidence. There was some evidence of benign invasiveness, although the lesions generally resembled simple hyperplastic parenchymatous goiters seen in humans.« less
  • Diets containing coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) from the Pacific Ocean or from Lakes Erie, Michigan, and Ontario (containing a gradation from low to high of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, (HAHs)) were fed to C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice. Following a 4-month dietary exposure to Lake Ontario salmon, both strains of mice demonstrated hepatomegaly. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (ERR) enzyme levels were elevated in livers of C57B1/6 mice fed diets of salmon from all of the Great Lakes studied, with exceptionally high levels detected in C57B1/6 mice fed Lake Ontario salmon. Induction of ERR enzyme levels was detected in DBA/2 mice only following dietarymore » exposure to Lake Ontario salmon. Serum levels of L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thryonine (T3) were suppressed in C57B1/6 mice following consumption of Lake Ontario coho salmon, but T3 and T4 levels remained unchanged in DBA/2 mice. In general, pathobiological effects correlated with both dietary HAH exposure level and Ah receptor status.« less
  • Pesticides and total PCBs were determined in raw skin-on and skin-off chinook salmon harvested from Lakes Huron and Michigan as well as in carp fillets harvested from Lakes Erie and Huron and after baking, charbroiling, and canning salmon as well as pan and deep fat frying carp. Raw skin-off fillets had an average of less than 50% of the residues found in raw skin-on fillets. Cooked skin-off fillets were also found to have significantly lower residues than the cooked skin-on fillets. Cooking significantly reduced the DDT complex, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, the chlordane complex, toxaphene, heptachlor epoxide, and total PCBs contents. Fewmore » significant differences were found among cooking methods. Canning did significantly reduce DDE in salmon. Average losses of pesticides and total PCBs from the chinook salmon ranged from 30 to 41%. Similar average percentage losses were found for carp, ranging from 30 to 35% for the DDT complex, chlordane complex, and total PCBs, while the losses of HCB and dieldrin were greater than 40%. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.« less
  • Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergisticallymore » with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.« less
  • As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199,more » occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.« less