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Title: Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

Abstract

Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stemsmore » and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants was suppressed by salinity. 49 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Botanical Garden, Warsaw, Poland
OSTI Identifier:
6094238
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Environ. Qual.; (United States); Journal Volume: 12:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AIR POLLUTION; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; INHIBITION; INJURIES; LEAVES; NUTRIENTS; OZONE; PHASEOLUS; PLANT GROWTH; SALINITY; STOMATA; SULFUR DIOXIDE; CHALCOGENIDES; DATA; GROWTH; INFORMATION; LEGUMINOSAE; NUMERICAL DATA; OPENINGS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PLANTS; POLLUTION; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; 560303* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Plants- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Bytnerowicz, A., and Taylor, O.C. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants. United States: N. p., 1983. Web. doi:10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001200030018x.
Bytnerowicz, A., & Taylor, O.C. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants. United States. doi:10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001200030018x.
Bytnerowicz, A., and Taylor, O.C. 1983. "Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants". United States. doi:10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001200030018x.
@article{osti_6094238,
title = {Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants},
author = {Bytnerowicz, A. and Taylor, O.C.},
abstractNote = {Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants was suppressed by salinity. 49 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.},
doi = {10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001200030018x},
journal = {J. Environ. Qual.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 12:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1983,
month = 1
}
  • Jet Star, an indeterminant tomato cultivar, was exposed to 0.011, 0.059, 0.118, 0.235, and 0.468 ppm SO/sub 2/ in open-top field chambers supplied with nonfiltered(NF) air and to 0.005, 0.113, and 0.466 ppm SO/sub 2/ in chambers with charcoal-filtered(CF) air. Treatments were given 5 hr/day, 5 days/wk, for a total of 57 days during July, August, and September. Ripe fruit yields were decreased 16% by O/sub 3/ in NF compared with CF air. The highest dose of SO/sub 2/ given in CF air reduced fruit yield by 18%. Ambient O/sub 3/ and the SO/sub 2/ treatments were additive in theirmore » effects on fruit yields. Significant reductions in fruit numbers were observed. Fruit quality was not measurably altered. A negative linear response for ripe fruit yield vs SO/sub 2/ exposure dose was demonstrated.« less
  • Plants of Pisum sativum L. were exposed to sulfur dioxide and ozone to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposures were associated with leaf injury. It was concluded from these studies that pollutants play a significant role in producing changes in stomatal aperture. The strongest indication that stomatal response was associated with the amount of leaf injury was the occurrence of stomatal closure and reduced injury 1) in expanding leaves, 2) in plants grown under high soil moisture stress, and 3) in plants exposed to pollutants early and late in the light period. 86 references, 8 figures, 14 tables.
  • Pinto bean plants (Phaseols vulgaris strain 111) were grown for 4, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days in greenhouses containing ambient air charcoal-filtered air or ozone at 6 pphm for 8 hr/day. Ozone was produced with a Welbach generator and monitored with Mast meters. The upper and lower surfaces of the first set of simple true leaves were used to make leaf prints on acidified potato-dextrose agar plates (PDA) at each sampling period. Discs cut from these leaves were washed 10 times in sterile water and plated on PDA. Results with leaf prints showed that species of 25 genera ofmore » fungi were present in recognizable successions on all leaves. The number of fungi per cm/sup 2/ leaf tissue increased with leaf age for all leaves, with the greatest number occurring on 28-day-old leaves with accumulated ozone flecks. Differences between leaves by sources was more quantitative than qualitative, with the exception of Aspergillus niger, which was common only on the leaves of plants grown in ambient air. Botrytis cincrea was commonly found on plates printed with leaves that had ozone fleck. Isolates of Candida, Cryptococcus, and Penicillium were the most abundant fungi on all leaves. Similar results were obtained with plated washed leaf discs except that the number of fungi genera present was reduced from 25 to 11.« less
  • Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.
  • Plants of Pisum sativum L. Alsweet were grown under a controlled environment and exposed to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposure were related to subsequent leaf injury. Stomata consistently closed with injurious levels of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/. Measurements with diffusion porometers demonstrated approx. = 75 and 25% lower conductance with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, compared to the conductance of control plants. Stomata also showed a closing response with noninjurious levels of SO/sub 2/ but an opening response with noninjurious levels of O/sub 3/. Stomata closed to themore » same degree with combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ as with SO/sub 2/ alone. Stomata of expanding leaves closed more during pollutant exposures than stomata of expanded leaves. The abaxial and adaxial stomata both exhibited closure with SO/sub 2/ and combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/, but abaxial stomata tended to close and adaxial stomata tended to open with exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. The changes in stomatal aperture were not closely correlated with the amount of leaf injury produced by different pollutant levels. Stomata closed, not only with exposure to pollutant levels that caused severe necrosis, but also with levels that caused only a trace of injury. There was no evidence of a reduced amount of closure or even stomatal opening with combinations of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ compared to plants exposed to the pollutants alone to explain the large amount of injury to plants exposed to pollutant combinations.« less