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Title: Integrated gas-fired desiccant dehumidification vapor-compression cooling system for residential application. Phase 1. Final report, December 1986-December 1987

Abstract

The development of an air conditioner that uses a liquid-desiccant dehumidifier is described. Three air-conditioning systems that integrate the operation of a conventional vapor-compression system with a liquid-desiccant dehumidifier were first simulated in seasonal performance studies. These studies showed that there was little benefit from attempting to recover reject heat from the vapor-compression system for regenerating the liquid desiccant. The preferred version of the liquid-desiccant dehumidifier was one that used a simple gas-fired boiler for regenerating the desiccant. When added to a conventional vapor-compression air conditioner, this liquid-desiccant system could maintain comfortable humidity levels in the living space for almost the entire cooling season at a modest premium in operating costs.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6059740
Report Number(s):
PB-89-140842/XAB; TR-4442-209-88
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 03 NATURAL GAS; DEHUMIDIFIERS; DESICCANTS; NATURAL GAS; RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; AIR CONDITIONERS; COOLING SYSTEMS; HEAT EXCHANGERS; OPERATING COST; PROGRESS REPORT; BUILDINGS; COST; DOCUMENT TYPES; ENERGY SOURCES; ENERGY SYSTEMS; FLUIDS; FOSSIL FUELS; FUEL GAS; FUELS; GAS FUELS; GASES 320106* -- Energy Conservation, Consumption, & Utilization-- Building Equipment-- (1987-); 030600 -- Natural Gas-- Economic, Industrial, & Business Aspects

Citation Formats

Lowenstein, A., Marsala, J., Spatz, M., Feldman, S., and Tandler, J. Integrated gas-fired desiccant dehumidification vapor-compression cooling system for residential application. Phase 1. Final report, December 1986-December 1987. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Lowenstein, A., Marsala, J., Spatz, M., Feldman, S., & Tandler, J. Integrated gas-fired desiccant dehumidification vapor-compression cooling system for residential application. Phase 1. Final report, December 1986-December 1987. United States.
Lowenstein, A., Marsala, J., Spatz, M., Feldman, S., and Tandler, J. 1988. "Integrated gas-fired desiccant dehumidification vapor-compression cooling system for residential application. Phase 1. Final report, December 1986-December 1987". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6059740,
title = {Integrated gas-fired desiccant dehumidification vapor-compression cooling system for residential application. Phase 1. Final report, December 1986-December 1987},
author = {Lowenstein, A. and Marsala, J. and Spatz, M. and Feldman, S. and Tandler, J.},
abstractNote = {The development of an air conditioner that uses a liquid-desiccant dehumidifier is described. Three air-conditioning systems that integrate the operation of a conventional vapor-compression system with a liquid-desiccant dehumidifier were first simulated in seasonal performance studies. These studies showed that there was little benefit from attempting to recover reject heat from the vapor-compression system for regenerating the liquid desiccant. The preferred version of the liquid-desiccant dehumidifier was one that used a simple gas-fired boiler for regenerating the desiccant. When added to a conventional vapor-compression air conditioner, this liquid-desiccant system could maintain comfortable humidity levels in the living space for almost the entire cooling season at a modest premium in operating costs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month =
}

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  • Field tests of a residential liquid-desiccant dehumidifier are described. From analysis done in Phase I of this program, a gas-fired boiler for regenerating the desiccant was selected with a one-ton capacity dehumidifier. Three field-experiment units were built. One was installed at a test house in Gaithersburg, Maryland owned by GEOMET Technologies. The second was installed in Atlanta, Georgia, supported by the Atlanta Gas Light Company. The third unit was shipped to Lone Star Gas Company, Forth Worth, Texas, to be installed in 1989. Once startup problems were corrected, the units ran reliably, controlling indoor humidity accurately. The seasonal COP formore » the Gaithersburg installation was 0.58; for Atlanta the COP was 0.50. By extending the operating periods (typically 5 minutes in these tests), the COP should increase. A manufacturing cost study of the residential dehumidifier showed that a factory cost of $553.62/unit is achieved at 50,000 units/year volume.« less
  • A residential liquid desiccant-boosted evaporative cooling system was developed. The major components included a cross-flow heat exchanger, interchange heat exchanger, and brine boiler. The unit measures approximately 64 inch (L) x 46 inch (W) x 49 inch (H). Economic studies using DOE-2 project a large market potential for the system, with Fresno, California, and El Paso, Texas, the top two market areas. Considerable engineering effort must still be carried out before the system can be commercialized. Some of the outstanding issues include the development of a method for mass-producing a low-cost leaktight cross-flow heat exchanger, tests for corrosion in themore » boiler, and the development of system controls.« less
  • The research reported here is an experimental study to determine the performance and economics of an alternative to presently available heat-driven cooling cycles. This alternative, called desiccant cooling, uses a drying agent (desiccant) to remove almost all of the moisture from outside air. In this work, the absorber, which is the particular part of the desiccant system that brings the air in contact with the desiccant while simultaneously providing cooling, has been tested. The results are compared with previously done computer models of the absorber behavior. The projected economics of the system are also examined, and the system is foundmore » to show promise against projected deregulated conventional energy costs.« less
  • This report describes the results of a field evaluation of state-of-art desiccant dehumidification equipment in Houston, TX. The evaluation demonstrated that comfort control in a quick-service restaurant could be improved dramatically. However, available gas-fired desiccant dehumidification equipment is too expensive, inefficient, and unreliable to be considered for wide application in the restaurant industry. Results of a technical and economic analysis of four HVAC options in four U.S. cities indicated that improved comfort control could be achieved with only a modest increase in operating costs with an advanced system. This, coupled with the economic benefits achieved through lower indoor humidity suchmore » as improved crew performance and reduced maintenance costs, could justify the introduction of an advanced, integrated, HVAC system using desiccant technology which has an installed cost similar to current equipment.« less
  • A novel, two-step manufacturing process, which involves the use of a thin aluminum substrate that is coated with a dense layer of a solid adsorbent, was determined to be the most effective method for producing a high performing, low cost desiccant dehumidification wheel. Extensive modeling completed by SEMCO, agreed with the conclusions of research previously sponsored by GRI, that the use of a desiccant material having a moderate type 1 isotherm (Type 1M) would result in optimum dehumidification performance. A compact, high performing open cycle desiccant based cooling system was modeled using the Type 1M desiccant wheel and the highmore » efficiency sensible only wheel also developed as part of the Phase 1 work. Based on performance projections for the system, an estimated selling price per ton of cooling capacity provided was determined for the dehumidification and energy recovery wheel subcomponents. These estimated selling prices were contrasted with those of the dehumidification energy recovery subcomponents currently available to the marketplace. This comparison confirmed that dramatic reduction in the selling price of these subcomponents is possible.« less