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Title: Identification of ions near HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) transmission lines: Final report

Abstract

Positive and negative ion species were identified and studied at two separate field sites and one laboratory site. The first field study was conducted under an operating HVDC transmission line. The second was near a HVDC test line and measurements were performed with the line in both an energized and de-energized state. During clear, sunny days HSO/sub 4//sup /minus///center dot/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was observed to be the dominant negative ion in the natural ion spectrum. At night, however, HSO/sub 4//sup /minus// core ions virtually disappeared, and were replaced by NO/sub 3//sup /minus// core ions and their first nitric acid cluster. Both negative spectra also typically contained lesser concentrations of the malonate ion. The transmission line negative spectra were similar but were typically dominated by the NO/sub 3//sup /minus// core ions during both day and night. The positive ions observed under HVDC lines were typically either NH/sub 4//sup +/ or C/sub 5/H/sub 6/N/sup +/, which reacted with higher proton affinity species (such as methylpyridines, trimethylamine and quinoline) farther from or in the absence of the transmission line. The observed differences between natural and anthropogenic ion spectra near HVDC lines are attributed primarily to a shortening of ion lifetimes by the strongmore » electric field associated with the HVDC lines. One exception is the production of potassium and probably sodium based ions from the decomposition of insects in transmission line coronas. 22 refs., 29 figs.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA); Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). Electromagnetics Lab.
OSTI Identifier:
6043108
Report Number(s):
EPRI-EN-6391
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; CORONA DISCHARGES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; IONS; PRODUCTION; ELECTRIC FIELDS; HVDC SYSTEMS; PROGRESS REPORT; QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHARGED PARTICLES; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; DC SYSTEMS; DOCUMENT TYPES; ELECTRIC DISCHARGES; ENERGY SYSTEMS; POWER SYSTEMS 560400* -- Other Environmental Pollutant Effects

Citation Formats

Eisele, F.L. Identification of ions near HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) transmission lines: Final report. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Eisele, F.L. Identification of ions near HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) transmission lines: Final report. United States.
Eisele, F.L. 1989. "Identification of ions near HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) transmission lines: Final report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6043108,
title = {Identification of ions near HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) transmission lines: Final report},
author = {Eisele, F.L.},
abstractNote = {Positive and negative ion species were identified and studied at two separate field sites and one laboratory site. The first field study was conducted under an operating HVDC transmission line. The second was near a HVDC test line and measurements were performed with the line in both an energized and de-energized state. During clear, sunny days HSO/sub 4//sup /minus///center dot/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was observed to be the dominant negative ion in the natural ion spectrum. At night, however, HSO/sub 4//sup /minus// core ions virtually disappeared, and were replaced by NO/sub 3//sup /minus// core ions and their first nitric acid cluster. Both negative spectra also typically contained lesser concentrations of the malonate ion. The transmission line negative spectra were similar but were typically dominated by the NO/sub 3//sup /minus// core ions during both day and night. The positive ions observed under HVDC lines were typically either NH/sub 4//sup +/ or C/sub 5/H/sub 6/N/sup +/, which reacted with higher proton affinity species (such as methylpyridines, trimethylamine and quinoline) farther from or in the absence of the transmission line. The observed differences between natural and anthropogenic ion spectra near HVDC lines are attributed primarily to a shortening of ion lifetimes by the strong electric field associated with the HVDC lines. One exception is the production of potassium and probably sodium based ions from the decomposition of insects in transmission line coronas. 22 refs., 29 figs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 5
}

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  • The Department of Energy, Division of Electric Energy Systems, initiated a research program in 1977 at the High Voltage Transmission Research Center to study the electrical environment associated with high voltage direct current (HVDC) overhead power transmission lines. The work described in this report was performed at the High Voltage Transmission Research Center (HVTRC) in Lenox, Massachusetts, during the period 1984--1988, using test facilities and instrumentation developed on behalf of the Department of Energy during the present phase of this research and during the previous phase of the research. 213 figs., 22 tabs.
  • This report evaluates the technical and economic feasibility for active filtering of dc-side voltage harmonics and the ac-side current harmonics produced by a HVDC converter. The following designs for the active filter concepts are compared with the existing ac-side and dc-side passive filters used at the Dickinson terminal of the CU HVDC transmission line project: the dc-side active filter consisting of a capacitor coupled current injection source to actively ''neutralize'' the 12th, 24th and the 36th harmonics and, the ac-side active filter designed to provide the same fundamental frequency reactive VARs as the existing passive filters. Controlled currents are injectedmore » to actively filter the 11th and the 13th harmonic currents. A cost comparison is made between these active filter designs and existing passive filters supplied by the United Power Association (UPA). 22 figs., 11 tabs.« less
  • This project is a follow-up of the first development of a 500 kV HVDC airblast circuit breaker (EPRI project 1507-3). The objective was to increase the current interrupting capability from 2200 A to 4000 A and shorten its fault clearing time. A high current 500 kV HVDC circuit breaker has been built using the passive commutation circuit. The breaker is modular in construction and can be designed for a wide variety of system conditions. More than 400 current interruptions were carried out successfully. Tests have shown that this circuit breaker is capable of interrupting more than 4000 A dc. Practicalmore » breakers with current interrupting capability of even 5500 A dc could be built. The circuit breaker operation and the fault-clearing process can be materially speeded up if the trip signal is given as soon as the fault is detected and without waiting for the current levels to come down in response to converter control action. The new dc breakers are shown to be capable of withstanding these transient arc currents of 8000 A without affecting its ability to interrupt the direct current that follows the transient. This transient current withstand capability is greater than is likely to occur during dc faults. The fault clearing time of this HVDC circuit breaker is comparable to the fault clearing time of conventional ac breakers for ac faults. The developed HVDC circuit breaker is now commercially available and can be supplied for use in HVDC systems. Its use in such systems is expected to provide flexibility in system design and contribute to system stability. 38 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs.« less
  • Radio frequency (RF) noise within the frequency range of 5 khz--1 MHz from high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter stations was investigated by using digital computer modeling techniques. A comprehensive impedance vs. frequency measurement program has been performed on converter transformers. Results were used to develop a transformer model for a digital computer program. A generic computer program has been developed that can calculate the RF voltages, currents, and ground level electric field strength and magnetic flux density in and around HVDC converter stations, in the 5 khz--1 MHz frequency range. The Radio Frequency Computer Analysis Program (RAFCAP) is availablemore » for a DEC VAX 11/785 computer as a production-grade program. However, since the entire program, including the user interface, is written in FORTRAN, it may not be considered as user friendly as some other EPRI sponsored computer programs. Also, a workstation version of the program for an IBM PS/2 system under the OS/2 operating system was developed.« less
  • It may be desired to locate a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter station in a sensitive electromagnetic environment. Such converter stations inherently generate electromagnetic noise that can interfere with computer and communication systems. Two previous projects studied this problem. In EPRI report EL-3712, measurements of an actual station were compared with scaled measurement made on a reduced scale model of the station. Radio Frequency Computer Analysis Program (RAFCAP), a digital computer model, was developed based on these results. In EPRI report EL-4956, the model was refined by adding frequency-dependent quantities and expanded to include filters. Volume 1 of the present studymore » completes the work of computer modeling by incorporating measurements made on transformers. Volume 2 is a user`s manual for both the DEC VAX and PC versions of the RAFCAP computer program. This abstract is for Volume 2.« less