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Title: Analysis of the application of fuel cells in dual energy use systems. Volume 2. Final report

Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the technical and financial issues associated with utility-owned, grid-connected, dispersed fuel cells operating as dual energy use systems (DEUS) to provide economic intermediate or peaking duty for the electric utility system, and to satisfy thermal loads in the residential, commercial, industrial and utility sectors. The primary objective was to evaluate the potential applications of dual energy use fuel cell systems by 1) identifying representative generic applications for DEUS fuel cells; 2) assessing the technical and economic factors in each application; 3) developing and evaluating options for matching or decoupling electric and thermal loads; and 4) quantifying the potential benefits and limitations of DEUS fuel cells. Both the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cell types were considered. The results indicate that both fuel cell types are economically attractive and technically viable for DEUS use in each of the application sectors. The most attractive applications for building systems include universities and hospitals; for industry, paper and pulp mills; and for utility power plants, air preheating. The economic benefits from these uses would justify increases in fuel cell capital costs of approx. $300/kW. Several other applications also showed favorable results, with increased allowable capital costs ofmore » $100 to $300/kW. The resultsalso indicated that the economic benefits arose even if the DEUS power plants operated on economic electric dispatch. This mode also resulted in significant petroleum savings due to the approximately 80% efficiency of DEUS fuel cells. Very few limitations on the use of DEUS fuel cells were identified.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Mathtech, Inc., Washington, DC (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6010466
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6010466
Report Number(s):
EPRI-EM-981(Vol.2)
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; DUAL-PURPOSE POWER PLANTS; ECONOMICS; FUEL CELLS; USES; FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS; CO-GENERATION; ACID ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS; AIR HEATERS; CARBONATES; COMMERCIAL SECTOR; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC UTILITIES; EVALUATION; FEEDWATER HEATERS; HEAT RECOVERY; HIGH-TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS; INDUSTRY; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS; MOLTEN SALTS; PERFORMANCE; PHOSPHORIC ACID; PROCESS HEAT; RESIDENTIAL SECTOR; SPACE HEATING; STEAM GENERATORS; WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION; WATER HEATERS; APPLIANCES; BOILERS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; DEUS; DIRECT ENERGY CONVERTERS; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ENERGY; ENERGY RECOVERY; HEAT; HEATERS; HEATING; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INORGANIC ACIDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POWER GENERATION; POWER PLANTS; POWER SYSTEMS; PUBLIC UTILITIES; RECOVERY; SALTS; STEAM GENERATION; VAPOR GENERATORS; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION 300504* -- Fuel Cells-- Applications; 290800 -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Heat Utilization-- (1980-)

Citation Formats

Wakefield, R.A., Limaye, D.R., Karamchetty, S.D.S.R., and Friedman, N.R. Analysis of the application of fuel cells in dual energy use systems. Volume 2. Final report. United States: N. p., 1979. Web.
Wakefield, R.A., Limaye, D.R., Karamchetty, S.D.S.R., & Friedman, N.R. Analysis of the application of fuel cells in dual energy use systems. Volume 2. Final report. United States.
Wakefield, R.A., Limaye, D.R., Karamchetty, S.D.S.R., and Friedman, N.R. Thu . "Analysis of the application of fuel cells in dual energy use systems. Volume 2. Final report". United States.
@article{osti_6010466,
title = {Analysis of the application of fuel cells in dual energy use systems. Volume 2. Final report},
author = {Wakefield, R.A. and Limaye, D.R. and Karamchetty, S.D.S.R. and Friedman, N.R.},
abstractNote = {This study was conducted to assess the technical and financial issues associated with utility-owned, grid-connected, dispersed fuel cells operating as dual energy use systems (DEUS) to provide economic intermediate or peaking duty for the electric utility system, and to satisfy thermal loads in the residential, commercial, industrial and utility sectors. The primary objective was to evaluate the potential applications of dual energy use fuel cell systems by 1) identifying representative generic applications for DEUS fuel cells; 2) assessing the technical and economic factors in each application; 3) developing and evaluating options for matching or decoupling electric and thermal loads; and 4) quantifying the potential benefits and limitations of DEUS fuel cells. Both the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cell types were considered. The results indicate that both fuel cell types are economically attractive and technically viable for DEUS use in each of the application sectors. The most attractive applications for building systems include universities and hospitals; for industry, paper and pulp mills; and for utility power plants, air preheating. The economic benefits from these uses would justify increases in fuel cell capital costs of approx. $300/kW. Several other applications also showed favorable results, with increased allowable capital costs of $100 to $300/kW. The resultsalso indicated that the economic benefits arose even if the DEUS power plants operated on economic electric dispatch. This mode also resulted in significant petroleum savings due to the approximately 80% efficiency of DEUS fuel cells. Very few limitations on the use of DEUS fuel cells were identified.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1979},
month = {2}
}

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