# Gauge invariance and mass without spontaneous symmetry breaking

## Abstract

In this letter a manifestly covariant quantization of electrodynamics is studied, starting from a gauge-invariant Lagrangian. In this framework, it is found that the photon can have a nonzero bare mass, while maintaining gauge invariance. It is then observed that these ideas can be used in other theories with U(1) local gauge invariance, including chiral symmetries, in order to have mass and gauge invariance without having to introduce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Local baryon symmetry is considered.

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Castilla 5487, Santiago, Chile

- OSTI Identifier:
- 5994986

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- Phys. Rev. Lett.; (United States)

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 43:8

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS; GAUGE INVARIANCE; EQUATIONS OF MOTION; HAMILTONIANS; LAGRANGIAN FIELD THEORY; LAGRANGIAN FUNCTION; MASS; MAXWELL EQUATIONS; PHOTONS; PROPAGATOR; RARITA-SCHWINGER THEORY; SPINORS; SYMMETRY BREAKING; U-1 GROUPS; DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS; ELECTRODYNAMICS; ELEMENTARY PARTICLES; EQUATIONS; FIELD THEORIES; FUNCTIONS; INVARIANCE PRINCIPLES; LIE GROUPS; MASSLESS PARTICLES; MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS; QUANTUM FIELD THEORY; QUANTUM OPERATORS; SYMMETRY GROUPS; U GROUPS; 645400* - High Energy Physics- Field Theory

### Citation Formats

```
Guendelman, E.
```*Gauge invariance and mass without spontaneous symmetry breaking*. United States: N. p., 1979.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.543.

```
Guendelman, E.
```*Gauge invariance and mass without spontaneous symmetry breaking*. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.543.

```
Guendelman, E. Mon .
"Gauge invariance and mass without spontaneous symmetry breaking". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.543.
```

```
@article{osti_5994986,
```

title = {Gauge invariance and mass without spontaneous symmetry breaking},

author = {Guendelman, E},

abstractNote = {In this letter a manifestly covariant quantization of electrodynamics is studied, starting from a gauge-invariant Lagrangian. In this framework, it is found that the photon can have a nonzero bare mass, while maintaining gauge invariance. It is then observed that these ideas can be used in other theories with U(1) local gauge invariance, including chiral symmetries, in order to have mass and gauge invariance without having to introduce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Local baryon symmetry is considered.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.543},

journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.; (United States)},

number = ,

volume = 43:8,

place = {United States},

year = {1979},

month = {8}

}

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