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Title: Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview

Abstract

Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes (<10 W/cm/sup 2/), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000/sup 0/C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billionmore » (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5981974
Report Number(s):
UCRL-53563
ON: DE85008705; TRN: 85-008766
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; MARS REACTOR; DESIGN; BREEDING BLANKETS; COST; HYDROGEN PRODUCTION; LEAD ALLOYS; LITHIUM ALLOYS; PLASMA CONFINEMENT; POWER GENERATION; SYNTHETIC FUELS; ALLOYS; CONFINEMENT; FUELS; MAGNETIC MIRROR TYPE REACTORS; REACTOR COMPONENTS; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; 700200* - Fusion Energy- Fusion Power Plant Technology

Citation Formats

Logan, B.G., Perkins, L.J., and Gordon, J.D. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview. United States: N. p., 1984. Web. doi:10.2172/5981974.
Logan, B.G., Perkins, L.J., & Gordon, J.D. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview. United States. doi:10.2172/5981974.
Logan, B.G., Perkins, L.J., and Gordon, J.D. 1984. "Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview". United States. doi:10.2172/5981974. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5981974.
@article{osti_5981974,
title = {Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview},
author = {Logan, B.G. and Perkins, L.J. and Gordon, J.D.},
abstractNote = {Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes (<10 W/cm/sup 2/), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000/sup 0/C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter.},
doi = {10.2172/5981974},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1984,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

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  • Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.
  • Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)
  • Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)
  • The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in an overview of a first-generation tandem mirror reactor. The central cell fusion plasma is self-sustained by alpha heating (ignition), while electron-cyclotron resonance heating and negative ion beams maintain the electrostatic confining potentials in the end plugs. Plug injection power is reduced by the use of high-field choke coils and thermal barriers, concepts to be tested in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
  • The executive summary of a study to assess the energy-saving and oil-saving impacts of DOE's solar and energy conservation programs is presented followed by an analysis overview. The following are presented in the overview: policy planning and evaluation function of DOE's Office of Conservation and Solar Energy; ORNL/MITRE study; key features of the ORNL/MITRE study; overview of baseline analysis; program impact assessments; analysis of results; and study caveats. (MCW)