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Title: Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report

Abstract

Thermal batteries are high temperature reserve batteries, predominantly used in missiles. Modern designs use a lithium (or lithium alloy) anode, an immobilized molten salt electrolyte and an iron-disulphide cathode. These batteries have many advantages: high reliability, long storage life without maintenance, wide temperature range of operation and, sometimes, high power. However, the energy density is rather low and this could be improved if the individual cell voltage could be raised above the present 2.2 V/cell open circuit-voltage for the lithium iron-disulphide couple. A new cathode material, lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), been invented at RAE with the advantage of the much higher open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V/cell versus lithium. The properties of LVO have been investigated and it has been shown that LVO consists of vanadium dioxide as the major component. Some lithium bromide is also present.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Royal Aerospace Establishment, Farnborough (United Kingdom)
OSTI Identifier:
5918692
Report Number(s):
AD-A-242948/8/XAB; RAE-TR--91044
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Original contains color plates: All DTIC reproductions will be in black and white
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; LITHIUM; MATERIALS TESTING; THERMAL BATTERIES; CATHODES; VANADIUM OXIDES; DESIGN; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTROLYTES; ELECTROLYTIC CELLS; ENERGY DENSITY; LITHIUM ALLOYS; SALTS; SERVICE LIFE; STORAGE; ALKALI METALS; ALLOYS; CHALCOGENIDES; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELECTRODES; ELEMENTS; METALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; TESTING; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; VANADIUM COMPOUNDS 250901* -- Energy Storage-- Batteries-- Design & Development; 250903 -- Energy Storage-- Batteries-- Materials, Components, & Auxiliaries

Citation Formats

Richie, A.G., and Warner, K. Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Richie, A.G., & Warner, K. Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report. United States.
Richie, A.G., and Warner, K. 1991. "Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5918692,
title = {Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report},
author = {Richie, A.G. and Warner, K.},
abstractNote = {Thermal batteries are high temperature reserve batteries, predominantly used in missiles. Modern designs use a lithium (or lithium alloy) anode, an immobilized molten salt electrolyte and an iron-disulphide cathode. These batteries have many advantages: high reliability, long storage life without maintenance, wide temperature range of operation and, sometimes, high power. However, the energy density is rather low and this could be improved if the individual cell voltage could be raised above the present 2.2 V/cell open circuit-voltage for the lithium iron-disulphide couple. A new cathode material, lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), been invented at RAE with the advantage of the much higher open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V/cell versus lithium. The properties of LVO have been investigated and it has been shown that LVO consists of vanadium dioxide as the major component. Some lithium bromide is also present.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1991,
month = 5
}

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  • Phase I of this program was focused mostly on the testing of pre-lithiated carbonaceous negative-electrode material as the source of the active lithium in lithium-ion cells coupled with "lithium-free" positive-electrode material. The secondary objective was na attempt to determine the ways of developing such as inexpense, stable, and environmentally benign "lithium-free" high-energy cathode material.
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  • The nuclear magnetic resonance of Li/sup 7/ in Li/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ shows no Knight shift, but there is a small diamagnetic shift relative to LiCl solution, amounting to 0.0023 and 0.0058% at 296 and 77 deg K respectively. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T/sub 1/, as measured by pulse experiments, decreases from 0.16 sec at 296 deg K to a minimum of 0.060 sec at 163 deg K and then rises to 0.13 sec at 77 deg K. The free induction decay half-width decreases from 850 mu sec at 296 deg K to 100 mu sec at 77 deg K.more » The minimum in T/sub 1/ is attributed to back-andforth motion of the Li ions within but normal to the axis of channels in the O framework; the line narrowing, to diffusion along the channel from one unit cell to an adjacent one. EPR studies give Lorentzian- shaped lines, centered at g = 1.96, of intensity proportional to 1/T. Results are consistent with a model in which Li atoms in a host V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ structure are completely ionized to give Li/sup +/ ions and electrons which are almost but not completely localized as V/sup +4/ centers. (auth)« less