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Title: Formation of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds in nonaqueous electrolytes and their application as a negative electrode for a lithium ion (shuttlecock) cell

Abstract

Electrochemical reduction of natural graphite was carried out in 1M LiClO[sub 4] ethylene carbonate (EC)/1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solution at 30 C. Natural graphite was reduced stepwise to LiC[sub 6]. The staging phenomenon was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The first stage and the second stage compounds were identified as a commensurate structure in which lithium atoms form a close-packed two-dimensional array. A second-stage compound (LiC[sub 18]) with a different in-plane lithium ordering based on a LiC[sub 9] two-dimensional packing in lithium intercalated sheets also was observed; also third, fourth-stage compounds were identified. The electrochemical oxidation of the first-stage compound (LiC[sub 6]) was examined and shown to reversible over the entire range, i.e., C[sub 6] + xLi [r reversible] Li[sub x]C[sub 6]. The reaction mechanism for the reduction of graphite and the oxidation of the first-stage compound are discussed in relation to the staging phenomenon from the detailed open-circuit voltage and XRD data. The chemical potential of LiC[sub 6] was estimated to be [minus]3.6 kcal mol from the observed reversible potential. The feasibility of using a lithium-graphite intercalation compound in lithium ion (shuttlecock) cells is described, and the innovative secondary systems, C[sub 6]/LiCoO[sub 2] and C[sub 6]/LiNiO[sub 2] fabricated in discharged states,more » are demonstrated.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5896110
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 140:9; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTRODES; LITHIUM CARBIDES; SYNTHESIS; CHLORATES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; GRAPHITE; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION; REDUCTION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; CARBIDES; CARBON; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMISTRY; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; COHERENT SCATTERING; DATA; DIFFRACTION; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELEMENTAL MINERALS; ELEMENTS; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; INFORMATION; MINERALS; NONMETALS; NUMERICAL DATA; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SCATTERING; 250903* - Energy Storage- Batteries- Materials, Components, & Auxiliaries; 400400 - Electrochemistry

Citation Formats

Ohzuku, Tsutomu, Iwakoshi, Yasunobu, and Sawai, Keijiro. Formation of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds in nonaqueous electrolytes and their application as a negative electrode for a lithium ion (shuttlecock) cell. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.1149/1.2220849.
Ohzuku, Tsutomu, Iwakoshi, Yasunobu, & Sawai, Keijiro. Formation of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds in nonaqueous electrolytes and their application as a negative electrode for a lithium ion (shuttlecock) cell. United States. doi:10.1149/1.2220849.
Ohzuku, Tsutomu, Iwakoshi, Yasunobu, and Sawai, Keijiro. Wed . "Formation of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds in nonaqueous electrolytes and their application as a negative electrode for a lithium ion (shuttlecock) cell". United States. doi:10.1149/1.2220849.
@article{osti_5896110,
title = {Formation of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds in nonaqueous electrolytes and their application as a negative electrode for a lithium ion (shuttlecock) cell},
author = {Ohzuku, Tsutomu and Iwakoshi, Yasunobu and Sawai, Keijiro},
abstractNote = {Electrochemical reduction of natural graphite was carried out in 1M LiClO[sub 4] ethylene carbonate (EC)/1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solution at 30 C. Natural graphite was reduced stepwise to LiC[sub 6]. The staging phenomenon was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The first stage and the second stage compounds were identified as a commensurate structure in which lithium atoms form a close-packed two-dimensional array. A second-stage compound (LiC[sub 18]) with a different in-plane lithium ordering based on a LiC[sub 9] two-dimensional packing in lithium intercalated sheets also was observed; also third, fourth-stage compounds were identified. The electrochemical oxidation of the first-stage compound (LiC[sub 6]) was examined and shown to reversible over the entire range, i.e., C[sub 6] + xLi [r reversible] Li[sub x]C[sub 6]. The reaction mechanism for the reduction of graphite and the oxidation of the first-stage compound are discussed in relation to the staging phenomenon from the detailed open-circuit voltage and XRD data. The chemical potential of LiC[sub 6] was estimated to be [minus]3.6 kcal mol from the observed reversible potential. The feasibility of using a lithium-graphite intercalation compound in lithium ion (shuttlecock) cells is described, and the innovative secondary systems, C[sub 6]/LiCoO[sub 2] and C[sub 6]/LiNiO[sub 2] fabricated in discharged states, are demonstrated.},
doi = {10.1149/1.2220849},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society; (United States)},
issn = {0013-4651},
number = ,
volume = 140:9,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {9}
}