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Title: Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

Abstract

Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5877609
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solar Energy Engineering; (USA); Journal Volume: 112:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; AQUACULTURE; SOLAR PROCESS HEAT; SOLAR PONDS; DESIGN; PERFORMANCE; SEAWATER; ENERGY; EQUIPMENT; HEAT; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PONDS; PROCESS HEAT; SOLAR COLLECTORS; SOLAR EQUIPMENT; SURFACE WATERS; WATER; 141000* - Solar Collectors & Concentrators; 140905

Citation Formats

Lowrey, P., Ford, R., Collando, F., Morgan, J., and Frusti, E. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds. United States: N. p., 1990. Web. doi:10.1115/1.2929652.
Lowrey, P., Ford, R., Collando, F., Morgan, J., & Frusti, E. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds. United States. doi:10.1115/1.2929652.
Lowrey, P., Ford, R., Collando, F., Morgan, J., and Frusti, E. Tue . "Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds". United States. doi:10.1115/1.2929652.
@article{osti_5877609,
title = {Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds},
author = {Lowrey, P. and Ford, R. and Collando, F. and Morgan, J. and Frusti, E.},
abstractNote = {Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.},
doi = {10.1115/1.2929652},
journal = {Journal of Solar Energy Engineering; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 112:2,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1990}
}
  • Thermal refuge areas for protecting fish from winter kills in commercial mariculture operations using large outdoor ponds are experimentally investigated. A double curtain arrangement is introduced and is shown to be both practical and effective as a thermal barrier. The sea water thermal refuge concept is shown to be viable for the pond sizes of over 26,000 m{sup 2} tested. Comparisons based on thermal performance are made among three barrier arrangements.
  • An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered inmore » mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.« less
  • Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.
  • This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.
  • This paper presents a method for preliminary design of a 1 km{sup 2} solar pond that will be supplied with salt and water from the sea. The evaporating basins, needed to concentrate the seawater are also included in the project. Starting from the experience that Agip Petroli gained in running the 25,000 m{sup 2} Solar Pond, built inside a salt-work in Margherita di Savoia, in southern Italy, two projects were worked out: the first one of 25,000 m{sup 2} and the second one of 1 km{sup 2} of surface. Making comparison between harvested energy cost of the solar pond, andmore » the energy cost of alternative and traditional energy sources, the coastal Solar Pond of 1 km{sup 2} that utilizes seawater as salt and water source, is competitive.« less