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Title: Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking

Abstract

Immobilized bacteria technology (IBT) utilizes inert biocarriers to support high concentrations of chemical-degrading bacteria in reactors designed to provide optimal conditions for microbial activity. This study evaluated IBT performance inpacked bed reactors (PBRs) using a porous inorganic biocarrier (diatomaceous earth), nonporous biocarriers (glass beads), and organic biocarriers having carbon adsorption properties (granular activated carbon) with different porosity. Each reactor was challenged with high chemical loading, acid, dryness, and heat shock conditions. Benchtop PBSs inoculated with a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading Pseudomonas sp. and fed a synthetic waste containing 100 to 1,300 mg/L of PNP showed removal of PNP from effluents within 24 h of start-up. Chemical loading studies showed maximum PNP removal rates of 6.45 to 7.35 kg/m[sup 3]/d for bacteria in PBRs containing diatomaceous earth beads, glass beads, and activated coconut carbon. A lower PNP removal rate of 1.47 kg/m[sup 3]/d was determined for the activated anthracite carbon, and this PBR responded more slowly to increases in chemical loading. The PBR containing bacteria immobilized on activated coconut carbon showed exceptional tolerance to acid shocking, drying, and heat shocking by maintaining PNP removal rates > 85% throughout the entire study. The other biocarriers showed nearly complete loss of PNP degradation during themore » perturbations, but all recovered high rates of PNP degradation (> 98% removal) within 48 h after an acid shock at pH2, within 8 d after an acid shock at pH 1.0, within 24 h after drying for 72 h, and within 48 h of heat shocking. The resiliency and high chemical removal efficiency demonstrated by immobilized bacteria in this study support the concept of using IBT for the biotreatment of industrial wastes..« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States). Environmental Sciences Center
  2. Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielle de Paris, (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5811467
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12:6; Journal ID: ISSN 0730-7268
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; BIOREACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; NITROPHENOL; BIODEGRADATION; PSEUDOMONAS; TOLERANCE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; IMMOBILIZED CELLS; PACKED BEDS; AROMATICS; BACTERIA; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DECOMPOSITION; EVALUATION; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; NITRO COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; PHENOLS; TESTING; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Heitkamp, M A, Adams, W J, and Camel, V. Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.1002/etc.5620120607.
Heitkamp, M A, Adams, W J, & Camel, V. Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking. United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620120607.
Heitkamp, M A, Adams, W J, and Camel, V. Tue . "Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking". United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620120607.
@article{osti_5811467,
title = {Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking},
author = {Heitkamp, M A and Adams, W J and Camel, V},
abstractNote = {Immobilized bacteria technology (IBT) utilizes inert biocarriers to support high concentrations of chemical-degrading bacteria in reactors designed to provide optimal conditions for microbial activity. This study evaluated IBT performance inpacked bed reactors (PBRs) using a porous inorganic biocarrier (diatomaceous earth), nonporous biocarriers (glass beads), and organic biocarriers having carbon adsorption properties (granular activated carbon) with different porosity. Each reactor was challenged with high chemical loading, acid, dryness, and heat shock conditions. Benchtop PBSs inoculated with a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading Pseudomonas sp. and fed a synthetic waste containing 100 to 1,300 mg/L of PNP showed removal of PNP from effluents within 24 h of start-up. Chemical loading studies showed maximum PNP removal rates of 6.45 to 7.35 kg/m[sup 3]/d for bacteria in PBRs containing diatomaceous earth beads, glass beads, and activated coconut carbon. A lower PNP removal rate of 1.47 kg/m[sup 3]/d was determined for the activated anthracite carbon, and this PBR responded more slowly to increases in chemical loading. The PBR containing bacteria immobilized on activated coconut carbon showed exceptional tolerance to acid shocking, drying, and heat shocking by maintaining PNP removal rates > 85% throughout the entire study. The other biocarriers showed nearly complete loss of PNP degradation during the perturbations, but all recovered high rates of PNP degradation (> 98% removal) within 48 h after an acid shock at pH2, within 8 d after an acid shock at pH 1.0, within 24 h after drying for 72 h, and within 48 h of heat shocking. The resiliency and high chemical removal efficiency demonstrated by immobilized bacteria in this study support the concept of using IBT for the biotreatment of industrial wastes..},
doi = {10.1002/etc.5620120607},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; (United States)},
issn = {0730-7268},
number = ,
volume = 12:6,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {6}
}