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Title: Subsurface structure and nature of gas production and entrapment of Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation, Auburn gas field, Cayuga County, New York

Abstract

Geophysical well-log analysis of 111 wells of the Auburn gas field has shown that the Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation contains a range of 6 to 156 ft (cumulative vertical) of 10% and greater apparent porosity, and 9-141 ft (cumulative vertical) of 75% and greater sand content. Permeability measurements made by others range from 1 md to as low as 0.01 md. Rapid initial gas production decline during the first three years of production and sustained long-term low daily and cumulative production confirm geophysical well log and petrographic interpretations that the Queenston Formation is a well-fractured, low-permeability reservoir.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5787438
Report Number(s):
CONF-8809345-
Journal ID: CODEN: AABUD
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AAPG Bull.; (United States); Journal Volume: 72:8; Conference: AAPG Eastern section meeting, Charleston, WV, USA, 13-15 Sep 1988
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; NATURAL GAS FIELDS; GEOLOGIC TRAPS; PRODUCTION; NEW YORK; GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS; GEOLOGIC FRACTURES; ORDOVICIAN PERIOD; PERMEABILITY; POROSITY; RESERVOIR ROCK; WELL LOGGING; FEDERAL REGION II; GEOLOGIC AGES; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES; MINERAL RESOURCES; NATURAL GAS DEPOSITS; NORTH AMERICA; PALEOZOIC ERA; RESOURCES; USA 030200* -- Natural Gas-- Reserves, Geology, & Exploration

Citation Formats

Saroff, S.T.. Subsurface structure and nature of gas production and entrapment of Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation, Auburn gas field, Cayuga County, New York. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Saroff, S.T.. Subsurface structure and nature of gas production and entrapment of Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation, Auburn gas field, Cayuga County, New York. United States.
Saroff, S.T.. 1988. "Subsurface structure and nature of gas production and entrapment of Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation, Auburn gas field, Cayuga County, New York". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5787438,
title = {Subsurface structure and nature of gas production and entrapment of Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation, Auburn gas field, Cayuga County, New York},
author = {Saroff, S.T.},
abstractNote = {Geophysical well-log analysis of 111 wells of the Auburn gas field has shown that the Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation contains a range of 6 to 156 ft (cumulative vertical) of 10% and greater apparent porosity, and 9-141 ft (cumulative vertical) of 75% and greater sand content. Permeability measurements made by others range from 1 md to as low as 0.01 md. Rapid initial gas production decline during the first three years of production and sustained long-term low daily and cumulative production confirm geophysical well log and petrographic interpretations that the Queenston Formation is a well-fractured, low-permeability reservoir.},
doi = {},
journal = {AAPG Bull.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 72:8,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month = 8
}

Conference:
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  • Gas has been produced from the Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation at West Auburn field, Cayuga County, New York, for over 20 years. This field indicates Queenston production to be long lived, with substantially economic reserves found at depths shallower than 2,000 ft. Locally, The Queenston is comprised of sand and silty shale with the primary reservoirs found in quartzose sandstones. The overall thickness of the Queenston clastic interval is over 700 ft with gas found in the upper 300 ft. Three primary gas sands are continuous across the field area and have high average porosities of as much as 13.0%more » and average permeabilities of 0.20 md. Extreme examples show peak porosities approaching 20% and permeabilities of over 5.0 md. The reservoir is composed of very fine to medium-grained, moderately sorted, red sandstone. Sand grains are predominantly quartz with minor amounts of feldspar. The main pore-filling constituent is abundant authigenic clay with iron oxides, thus contributing to reduced permeabilities. These sands vary in reservoir quality through the field and, hence, allow for stratigraphic trapping of the gas. Other factors involved include the updip accumulation of gas against the Silurian-Ordovician unconformity at the top of the Queenston. Some of the pay sands are absent due to this unconformity in the area farthest updip and, therefore, decrease the overall reserve potential of the individual well in that part of the field.« less
  • The Sespe Formation consists of continental red beds deposited during the tectonism that resulted as the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge approached the North American plate. The Sespe at West Montalvo field is over 7000 ft thick and consists predominantly of fine to medium-grained sandstones interbedded with siltstone and mudstone deposited in the central part of the Oligocene basin. Oil production was established in 1951 from the upper 2000 ft, known as the Colonia zone. The Colonia zone has been subdivided into six sandstone packages 350-600 ft thick, based on a model of laterally migrating fluvial systems that created local intraformational unconformities.more » These systems had unique depositional characteristics that can be inferred from well-log analysis and related to facies described in outcrops surrounding the Ventura basin. These characteristics include sandstone to shale ratios, relative bed thicknesses, lateral continuity of sandstone and shale interbeds, and whether the sandstone beds exhibit normal or reverse grading, or have sharp bases and tops. The fluvial environments include small braided distributary streams, larger trunk streams, and broad shallow braided streams. All of the sandstone packages contain oil-bearing beds, but the package in which the sediments were apparently deposited in a system of broad, shallow braided streams is the most oil-prone. These sandstones are relatively thin, have sharp bases and tops, and are laterally continuous across parts of the field. The rapid sedimentation and the cut-and-fill processes of braided streams may have created interconnecting fluid pathways that allowed the migration and updip accumulation of oil.« less
  • Recently acquired seismic data reinterpreted well information in northwest Saudi Arabia extends outcropping Lower Silurian to Upper Ordovician Zarqa/Sarah glacial and periglacial deposits into the subsurface. These deposits range from northeast-trending outwash-filled channels deeply incised into the underlying Ordovician Qasim and the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation in the east. A southwest source for these sediments is implied by this new data. This supports previously interpreted source directions mapped from outcrop. It also correlates with the position of the Arabian plate relative to known Gonwanaland ice caps during the Early Silurian-Late Ordovician. The recognition of glacial outwash sediments in the subsurface providesmore » new insight into the continuity and environments of deposition of the Qasim Formation members in northwest Saudi Arabia. The hydrocarbon-prone Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation overlies the Zarqa/Sarah Formations. The Qusaiba represents a rapid transgression of the Paleo-Tethys Sea during the final melting of the Gondwanaland ice caps. The seal-source characteristics of the Qusaiba Member, combined with the good porosity and permeability of the underlying outwash deposits, suggest a prospective hydrocarbon exploration play. Gas is produced from this reservoir in the Risha field of eastern Jordan.« less
  • Dune field contains little vuggy porosity so total porosity and particle size become the determining factors. Three pore-geometry families are distiguished: intergranular porosity between 300-{mu}m grains in grainstones, intercrystalline porosity between 50-{mu}m dolomite crystals in dolomitized wackestones/packestones, and rocks with an intimate mixture of these two end members. Unique porosity-permeability transform functions for these three pore-type families are determined. The presence of up to 55% gypsum in Dune field complicates calculations of total porosity. Particle size was determined by relating particle size to irreducible water saturation. In the oil column, irreducible water saturation is a function of interparticle porosity andmore » particle size. Assuming similar porosity values, rocks with finer pores will have higher water saturations than those with larger pores. In Dune field, intergranular pores are larger than the intercrystalline pores, and saturation values calculated from wireline logs show lower water saturations for the intergranular pore-type families than for the intercrystalline pore-type families. The mixed family is intermediate. Permeabilities are calculated from sonic and resistivity logs by determining the pore-type family from the saturation values and the permeability from the porosity-permeability relationship for that family. The resulting permeability profiles compare favorably with core analysis profiles. Permeability logs are correlated assuming parallel beds, and permeability cross sections and permeability-thickness maps are prepared. The results show that the reservoir can be divided into upper and lower members separated by a 25-ft permeability barrier. The permeability in either member varies on scales from 600 ft to 1 mi and can be related to depositional and diagenetic facies.« less
  • Hatters Pond field is in east-central Mobile County in southwestern Alabama and it produces from both the Norphlet and Smackover formations. The structural trap involves salt movement along the west side of the Mobile Fault System that resulted in a faulted salt anticline. The Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama consists of red to gray siltstone and pinkish to gray sandstone with conglomerate layers. Three facies have been distinguished within the Norphlet Formation: a lower shale, a red siltstone sequence, and an upper quartzose unit. The thickness of the formation ranges from a feather edge to more than 800 ft (234.8more » m) in southwestern Alabama. The Upper Jurassic Denkman Sandstone Member of the Norphlet Formation at Hatters Pond field is a medium- to fine-grained, well-sorted arkosic sandstone between the underlying Norphlet redbed lithofacies and the carbonates of the overlying Smackover Formation. Here, the Denkman Member can be subdivided into a massive upper unit and a low- to high-angle cross-stratified lower unit. The sandstones are quartz-rich with a high percentage of feldspars. The majority of the feldspar grains observed are potassium feldspar. Microcline is usually less altered when compared with other types of feldspar grains. The major types of feldspar replacement include illitization, hematitization, dolomitization, chloritization, calcitization, vacuolization, and anhydritization. Carbonate replacement of feldspars is very abundant, mostly by ferroan dolomite. Rock fragments are not abundant in the Denkman Member, although there is good evidence of a metamorphic/volcanic source area. The sandstones are cemented by dolomite, calcite, anhydrite, and quartz and feldspar overgrowths. The lower Denkman unit is slightly more porous than the upper Denkman unit. The pore-lining authigenic clay, illite, greatly reduces permeability and porosity in these sandstones.« less