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Title: Acid rain

Abstract

A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Champaign
OSTI Identifier:
5766548
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5766548
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering; (United States); Journal Volume: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACID RAIN; MONITORING; SAMPLING; AIR POLLUTION; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; PH VALUE; WASHOUT; POLLUTION; PRECIPITATION SCAVENGING; RAIN; SEPARATION PROCESSES 500200* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Stensland, G.J. Acid rain. United States: N. p., 1983. Web.
Stensland, G.J. Acid rain. United States.
Stensland, G.J. Tue . "Acid rain". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5766548,
title = {Acid rain},
author = {Stensland, G.J.},
abstractNote = {A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.},
doi = {},
journal = {Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1983},
month = {Tue Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1983}
}
  • The RAINS (Regional Acidification Information and Simulation) model developed by European scientists can be used to analyze the effects of policy actions regarding use of alternative energies and various technologies to reduce emissions. In constructing the model, existing models were used as much as possible and linked in a single framework. Scientists from many countries have served in the model's review process. RAINS emphasizes the transboundary aspect of air pollution. Hence, spatially it covers all of Europe including the European part of the USSR, with a time horizon from 1960 to 2040. The model is currently sulfur-based because of themore » principal role of sulfur dioxide as a precursor of acid deposition. However, the model is being expanded to include emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia. RAINS consists of three linked compartments: pollutant generation, atmospheric processes, and environmental impacts. Sections are devoted to soil acidification lake acidification, other impact submodels, uncertainty analysis, and policy using science. 6 figures, 1 table.« less
  • Acid rain has now found its way into the economic and political arena, where geopolitical debates about the causes, effects, and mitigation or elimination of acid rain grow increasingly heated. After an overview of the acid rain problem and the ineffectiveness of the Clean Air Act, the author analyzes Senator Stafford's Bill (S. 768) in light of its economic, political, and environmental impact. The bill amends the Clean Air Act by calling for a three-stage plan in reducing acid rain damage. However it lacks adequate funding appropriations to equitably support its policies. To become an effective solution, the bill needsmore » to include an emissions tax and/or trust fund that will generate revenues. It must also mandate nitrogen oxide emission reductions in conjunction with the proposed sulfur dioxide reductions.« less
  • This is a general article on acid rain. The history of acid rain research is outlined, and the basic meteorology of acid rain in reviewed. The types and mechanisms of acid rain injury to plants are surveyed.
  • Significant amounts of acid and other pollutants reach the ground without the aid of precipitation, but most of it goes unrecorded.
  • The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.