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Title: Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico

Abstract

The Monterrey salient was examined using Landsat TM and MSS images to determine factors controlling the development, distribution, and exposure of Laramide structures. Lateral Mesozoic facies changes influence structural styles and distribution. Exposure of deep foreland structures north of Monterrey is partly related to the location of the Cupido reef trend. Structure along the front of the salient changes abruptly from tectonic wedging to normal overthrusting where deltaic clastics of the Difunta Group grade into incompetent Mendez shale. Salt thickness is an important factor controlling structural development. Areas without evaporites are usually persistent basement highs characterized by less severe deformation. Areas with thin evaporites have complex structural styles, depending on stratigraphy, depth of exposure, and distance from the Sierra Madre thrust front. Thick salt, apparently in a Jurassic rift beneath the salient, facilitated the northward transport of thrust sheets. Late Cretaceous salt movement influenced stratigraphy in La Popa basin where limestone lenses developed in the clastic Difunta Group. Basement topography is the major factor controlling development, style, distribution of structures, and areal distribution of salt and lateral facies changes. The authors propose a tectonic model that explains the large scale structural styles in the region. The Coahuila basement-high block actedmore » as a buttress during Laramide shortening, limiting northward progression of deformation west of Saltillo. East, in the Monterrey salient, the effect of deeper basement and thick salt permitted thrusts to transport material much farther north, resulting in development of a north-south zone of distributed left-lateral shear in the region of Saltillo.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5739164
Report Number(s):
CONF-910403--
Journal ID: ISSN 0149-1423; CODEN: AABUD
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (United States); Journal Volume: 75:3; Conference: Annual meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), Dallas, TX (United States), 7-10 Apr 1991
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; GEOLOGIC FAULTS; GEOLOGIC MODELS; REMOTE SENSING; MEXICO; DEFORMATION; GEOLOGIC HISTORY; LANDSAT SATELLITES; MOUNTAINS; MULTISPECTRAL PHOTOGRAPHY; SALT DEPOSITS; STRATIGRAPHY; TECTONICS; THERMOGRAPHY; DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GEOLOGIC FRACTURES; GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES; GEOLOGY; LATIN AMERICA; MEASURING METHODS; NORTH AMERICA; PHOTOGRAPHY; SATELLITES 580000* -- Geosciences

Citation Formats

Johnson, C.A., Gray, G.G., and Goldhammer, R.. Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Johnson, C.A., Gray, G.G., & Goldhammer, R.. Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico. United States.
Johnson, C.A., Gray, G.G., and Goldhammer, R.. 1991. "Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5739164,
title = {Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico},
author = {Johnson, C.A. and Gray, G.G. and Goldhammer, R.},
abstractNote = {The Monterrey salient was examined using Landsat TM and MSS images to determine factors controlling the development, distribution, and exposure of Laramide structures. Lateral Mesozoic facies changes influence structural styles and distribution. Exposure of deep foreland structures north of Monterrey is partly related to the location of the Cupido reef trend. Structure along the front of the salient changes abruptly from tectonic wedging to normal overthrusting where deltaic clastics of the Difunta Group grade into incompetent Mendez shale. Salt thickness is an important factor controlling structural development. Areas without evaporites are usually persistent basement highs characterized by less severe deformation. Areas with thin evaporites have complex structural styles, depending on stratigraphy, depth of exposure, and distance from the Sierra Madre thrust front. Thick salt, apparently in a Jurassic rift beneath the salient, facilitated the northward transport of thrust sheets. Late Cretaceous salt movement influenced stratigraphy in La Popa basin where limestone lenses developed in the clastic Difunta Group. Basement topography is the major factor controlling development, style, distribution of structures, and areal distribution of salt and lateral facies changes. The authors propose a tectonic model that explains the large scale structural styles in the region. The Coahuila basement-high block acted as a buttress during Laramide shortening, limiting northward progression of deformation west of Saltillo. East, in the Monterrey salient, the effect of deeper basement and thick salt permitted thrusts to transport material much farther north, resulting in development of a north-south zone of distributed left-lateral shear in the region of Saltillo.},
doi = {},
journal = {AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 75:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1991,
month = 3
}

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  • An unusual assemblage of authigenic adularia, albite, and pumpellyite occurs in Jurassic carbonates and shales of the Zuloaga and La Casita Fms. adjacent to diapiric evaporites about 30 km northwest of Monterrey, Mexico. Abundant inclusions of graphite and carbonate give all three minerals a striking coal-black appearance. Braunite has also been found but only in placer accumulations in the drainages. The K-feldspar has typical prismatic adularia morphology. It is structurally anomalous and disordered with an apparent structural state between Benson and high sanidine. The adularia contains from 1 to 4 wt.% BaO. The albite is nearly pure low albite. Themore » pumpellyite is chemically unique. It is an Fe-free, Mg-rich pumpellyite. Microprobe analysis gives: Ca/sub 7.90/(Mg/sub 2.42/Fe/sub 0.01/Al/sub 1.44/)/sub SIGMA3.87/Al/sub 8/Si/sub 12.24/O/sub 41.93/(OH)/sub 14.07. The assemblage of authigenic minerals is interpreted to have formed as the result of low-temperature metasomatism of the carbonate-rich sediments by solutions rich in K-Na-MMg-(Ba)-(Mn). The close spatial association of the minerals to the diapir and the inferred chemistry of the solutions suggest that the fluids responsible for the mineralization were brines derived from the evaporite sequence. The authigenic mineralization is analogous to that found adjacent to igneous intrusions. Thus, this deposit may be the first example of a sedimentary skarn with a salt diapir equivalent to an igneous plug.« less
  • The Aquitaine basin lies in the immediate foreland of the Pyrenean fold and thrust belt. As a result, the area shows a very complex structural setting, because inherited structures dating back from the Hercynian are reactivated by the Early Cretaceous extension and later on by the compressive episodes of the Pyrenean orogeny. In this context, the traps for the fields (tilted blocks) are linked to inherited structures and results from a complex history of Early Cretaceous extension and basin subsidence, both northward and southward. The area shows an almost complete stratigraphic record, extending from the Precambrian crystalline basement to themore » Tertiary. The main reservoirs are located within Barremian to Kimmeridgian dolomites below 3000 m, where average matrix porosities are low (3-5%), with highly fractured zones allowing excellent production. The main source rocks are also Kimmeridgian to Barremian. The seals correspond to Albian-Aptian shales and shaly limestones. The Aquitaine basin has a complex history, both structurally and stratigraphically. Therefore, knowledge of tectono-sedimentary units of inherited features related to Early Cretaceous extension is fundamental for petroleum exploration.« less
  • A relatively thick and extensive, previously unnamed, lower Miocene sandstone unit occurs in the central Sierra Madre and in the Hurricane Deck area of the San Rafael Mountains of northeastern Santa Barbara County, California. It is underlain conformably and interfingers with a dark mudstone that correlates with the Soda Lake Shale Member of the Vaqueros Formation; it is overlain conformably and interfingers with a brown shale that correlates with the Saltos Member of the Monterey Shale. Northeastern exposures along the north flank of the Sierra Madre are almost exclusively medium to coarse-grained, structureless sandstone with scattered pebbly conglomerate beds. Thicknessmore » ranges from zero in the southeastern part of the Sierra Madre to 70 m in the northeast, 75 m in the northwest, and 600 m in the central part of the range. Toward the southwest in the Hurricane Deck area of the San Rafael Mountains, the unit becomes thicker and more extensively interbedded with mudstone. Lithology of the unit consists of 0.3-3.5 m thick beds of medium to coarse-grained, structureless to vaguely graded sandstone with scoured contacts at the base. Sandstone beds 0.3-3.0 m thick, which are more distinctly graded from coarse to very fine are also present. The interbedded mudstone commonly is bioturbated, so bedding is indistinct. Thickness ranges from 1020 m in the central part of the area to 750 m toward the southwest and 92 m toward the northwest. The unit most likely represents deposition in a submarine-canyon and fan complex that had its channel head in the northeast and spread southwestward into a thick sequence of submarine-fan sandstone lobes, which were confined in a narrow west-trending trough.« less
  • Involvement of crystalline rocks in thrusting near the foreland basin of a fold-and-thrust belt is relatively uncommon. In the northeastern Brooks Range, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was thrust northward and structurally elevated above adjacent foreland basin deposits during Cenozoic fold-and-thrust deformation. The batholith may have acted initially as a regional structural buttress, but a drop in the basal detachment surface to greater depth south of the batholith resulted in northward transport of the batholith. Shortening within the batholith was accommodated by (1) the development of discrete thrust slices bounded by ductile shear zones, (2) simple shear and development of penetrativemore » mesoscopic and microscopic fabrics throughout the batholith, or both. The Mississippian Kayak Shale, a regional detachment horizon at the base of the overlying cover sequence, is depositionally thin or absent adjacent to the batholith. Thus, most of the cover sequence remained structurally coupled to the batholith during thrusting and was shortened by the development of penetrative structures.« less
  • The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously,more » especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.« less