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Title: Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

Abstract

Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5732614
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-79-3378; CONF-800304-9
TRN: 80-003570
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-36
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5. international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Jerusalem, Israel, 8 Mar 1980
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; LUNGS; CARCINOGENESIS; PLUTONIUM; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; RESPIRATORY TRACT CELLS; NEOPLASMS; BIOLOGICAL MODELS; HAMSTERS; RADIOINDUCTION; TOXICITY; ACTINIDES; ANIMAL CELLS; ANIMALS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BODY; DISEASES; ELEMENTS; MAMMALS; METALS; ORGANS; PATHOGENESIS; RADIATION EFFECTS; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; RODENTS; TRANSURANIUM ELEMENTS; VERTEBRATES; 560172* - Radiation Effects- Nuclide Kinetics & Toxicology- Animals- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Thomas, R.G., Smith, D.M., and Anderson, E.C. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles. United States: N. p., 1980. Web.
Thomas, R.G., Smith, D.M., & Anderson, E.C. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles. United States.
Thomas, R.G., Smith, D.M., and Anderson, E.C. 1980. "Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5732614.
@article{osti_5732614,
title = {Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles},
author = {Thomas, R.G. and Smith, D.M. and Anderson, E.C.},
abstractNote = {Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1980,
month = 1
}

Conference:
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  • The purpose of this study was to examine the plutonium aerosol fluxes (Curies per ground area per unit time) from a bare soil near a chemical separation facility and to determine the characteristics of the plutonium-bearing aerosols, which are of consequence in deposition of the alpha-emitters into the lung. These characteristics are the plutonium aerosol concentration (Curies per unit volume of air), the particle size distribution, the radioactivity size distribution, the enhancement factors, and others. The site was the agricultural field adjacent to H-area of Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, where low-level releases of /sup 239/Pu and /supmore » 240/Pu occurred from 1967 through 1974. The releases then changed primarily to /sup 238/Pu. Results indicate that plutonium aerosol concentrations were not greatly increased by removing the vegetation and cultivating the field. Following a rain which stabilized the surface /sup 239/Pu concentrations were 37% of normal to 144% of normal as the field dried. The /sup 239/Pu concentration was broadly distributed over particle sizes and had MAD 2.7 ..mu..m. The /sup 239/Pu concentration distributions were found to be 12% respirable and the maximum concentration observed, 4.94 x 10/sup -17/ Ci m/sup -3/, amounted to an inconsequential exposure of less than 10/sup -5/ lifetime background dose for 100 days exposure. /sup 239/Pu flux was not greatly increased as the dust flux increased because /sup 239/Pu activity of the aerosols decreased with time to counteract the increased dust flux.« less
  • Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in themore » soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots.« less
  • Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher inmore » control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for F344 rats but about 210 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more {open_quotes}sensitive{close_quotes} than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. 31 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.« less
  • Promotion of lung tumor formation from inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in rats may be associated with aggregation of plutonium particles near bronchioles. The relationship of plutonium particle aggregation in the lung and the development of lung tumors after inhalation of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ was studied in 664 life span rats with mean lung doses ranging from 0.35 to 20 Gy. Plutonium particle concentration and aggregation were determined from autoradiographic sections of the left lung lobe. The increase in particles/cm2 and mean number of particles per aggregate up to 20 Gy were directly proportional to lung dose. Aggregates with greater thanmore » 25 particles increased linearly with dose from 0.2% at 1.4 Gy to 8.2% at 20 Gy, in a pattern similar to increasing severity of pulmonary fibrosis and incidence of lung tumors. Lung tumor incidence increased from about 6% at 1.4 Gy to 83% at 8 Gy; no further increase in lung tumors was seen at doses greater than 8 Gy. Maximum lung tumor incidence at 8 Gy corresponded to a particle concentration of 130/cm2 and four particles/aggregate with 4% of aggregates having greater than 25 particles. Aggregation of inhaled plutonium particles in clusters of greater than 25 particles resulted in daily doses of only a few centigray to focal tissue regions containing clustered particles, yet these doses appeared sufficient to cause pulmonary fibrosis and promotion of pulmonary carcinogenesis.« less