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Title: Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

Abstract

Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activitiesmore » overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. North Dakota State Univ., Fargo (USA)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5725649
Report Number(s):
CONF-9007196-
Journal ID: ISSN 0079-2241; CODEN: PPYSA
Resource Type:
Conference
Journal Name:
Plant Physiology, Supplement; (USA)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93:1; Conference: Annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, Indianapolis, IN (USA), 29 Jul - 2 Aug 1990; Journal ID: ISSN 0079-2241
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; POLYSACCHARIDES; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; CARBON 14 COMPOUNDS; CELL CULTURES; CELL WALL; ORGANOIDS; SYCAMORES; TRACER TECHNIQUES; CARBOHYDRATES; CELL CONSTITUENTS; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; KINETICS; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MAGNOLIOPHYTA; MAGNOLIOPSIDA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PLANTS; REACTION KINETICS; SACCHARIDES; TREES; 550201* - Biochemistry- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

White, A R, and Xin, Yi. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
White, A R, & Xin, Yi. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells. United States.
White, A R, and Xin, Yi. Tue . "Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells". United States.
@article{osti_5725649,
title = {Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells},
author = {White, A R and Xin, Yi},
abstractNote = {Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5725649}, journal = {Plant Physiology, Supplement; (USA)},
issn = {0079-2241},
number = ,
volume = 93:1,
place = {United States},
year = {1990},
month = {5}
}

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