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Title: Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

Abstract

A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM
OSTI Identifier:
5719536
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Radiat. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 112:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; FIBROSARCOMAS; RADIOINDUCTION; LUNGS; RADIATION DOSES; PLUTONIUM 239; CARCINOGENESIS; FIBROSIS; INHALATION; MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE; MONKEYS; PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE; ACTINIDE COMPOUNDS; ACTINIDE ISOTOPES; ACTINIDE NUCLEI; ALPHA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; ANIMALS; BODY; CHALCOGENIDES; DISEASES; DOSES; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; HEAVY NUCLEI; INTAKE; ISOTOPES; MAMMALS; NEOPLASMS; NUCLEI; ORGANS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PATHOGENESIS; PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES; PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS; PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES; PLUTONIUM OXIDES; PRIMATES; RADIOISOTOPES; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SAFETY STANDARDS; SARCOMAS; STANDARDS; TRANSURANIUM COMPOUNDS; VERTEBRATES; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 560162* - Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & Toxicology- Animals, Plants, Microorganisms, & Cells

Citation Formats

Hahn, F.F., Brooks, A.L., and Mewhinney, J.A. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide. United States: N. p., 1987. Web. doi:10.2307/3577266.
Hahn, F.F., Brooks, A.L., & Mewhinney, J.A. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide. United States. doi:10.2307/3577266.
Hahn, F.F., Brooks, A.L., and Mewhinney, J.A. 1987. "Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide". United States. doi:10.2307/3577266.
@article{osti_5719536,
title = {Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide},
author = {Hahn, F.F. and Brooks, A.L. and Mewhinney, J.A.},
abstractNote = {A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors.},
doi = {10.2307/3577266},
journal = {Radiat. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 112:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1987,
month =
}
  • Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher inmore » control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for F344 rats but about 210 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more {open_quotes}sensitive{close_quotes} than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. 31 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.« less
  • The effects of inhalation of air and 3 concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite, MHPG, plasma hormones, and behavioral activation were assessed in eight chair-adapted Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In comparison to air, inhalation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% CO{sub 2} for 180 minutes produced significant dose-dependent increases in respiratory rate, plasma MHPG, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. CO{sub 2} at the 7.5% concentration produced peak changes in behavior at 15, growth hormone at 30, and cortisol and MHPG at 180 minutes without producing changes in prolactin. The lack of previously reported CO{submore » 2} induced changes in MHPG, growth hormone and prolactin in humans exposed to 7.5% CO{sub 2} for only 15 minutes, may therefore relate to the relatively short duration of CO{sub 2} exposure.« less
  • Wistar rats were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of relatively insoluble /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ to quantitate the relationship between pulmonary radiation dose and dose rate and induced fibrosis. Lung weight, whole proteins, collagen, and uronic acids were determined as functions of dose and time. Irradiation induced an increased collagen content in the lung that was maximal at 200 days with the highest dose rate but had returned to control values after 400 days in rats getting the same total rad dose. This effect was specific since a similar effect was not observed for total proteins in the lung. Themore » variation of the connective tissue components could only be histopathologically correlated with homogeneous distribution but not with a scarring process, and it seems to have only a minor influence on gas exchanges.« less
  • After inhalation, /sup 15/CO/sub 2/ (T1/2 = 2 minutes) rapidly diffuses into pulmonary blood and is cleared from the lungs within 10 seconds. The purpose of this study was to determine whether impaired clearance of inhaled /sup 15/CO/sub 2/ from oligemic zones, distal to areas of obstructed pulmonary blood flow, could be detected by serial pulmonary imaging with a positron camera. Experimental obstruction of branches of the pulmonary artery was induced in 19 anesthetized dogs by inflation of balloon-tipped catheters (8 to 12 mm in diameter), injection of radiopaque silicone spheres (0.5 to 4.0 mm), and embolization with barium-impregnated autologousmore » blood clots (1 to 5 mm) via the right external jugular vein. After a single bolus injection of 2 mCi of /sup 15/CO/sub 2/ into the endotracheal tube, serial lung images of 150 activity were obtained over 60 to 180 seconds. Obstruction of pulmonary arterial branches resulted in visualization of discrete zones of impaired 150 clearance which varied in area with catheter diameter. Location and size of these zones were confirmed by repeat imaging after direct injection of 150-labeled blood through the distal catheter lumen. In dogs receiving autologous clots (n = 8), similar zones of impaired 150 clearance were consistently imaged, and single emboli as small as 2 mm in diameter produced regions of retaind 150 activity. Zones of retained 150 activity corresponded to the location of radiopaque emboli on chest radiographs. This study introduces a new technique of radionuclide imaging for detection of pulmonary emboli that is noninvasive, safe, sensitive, and repeatable at short intervals.« less