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Title: Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. Inmore » general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5607807
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5607807
Resource Type:
Miscellaneous
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ACID RAIN; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ALUMINIUM; TOXICITY; FORESTS; PRODUCTIVITY; PINES; SENSITIVITY; SOILS; ACIDIFICATION; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; FOREST LITTER; LAND POLLUTION; MONITORING; PH VALUE; PLANT GROWTH; SOIL CHEMISTRY; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; CHEMISTRY; CONIFERS; ELEMENTS; GROWTH; MATERIALS; METALS; PINOPHYTA; PLANTS; POLLUTION; RAIN; TREES 540220* -- Environment, Terrestrial-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 560300 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 010900 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Maynard, A.A. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Maynard, A.A. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition. United States.
Maynard, A.A. Sun . "Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5607807,
title = {Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition},
author = {Maynard, A.A.},
abstractNote = {Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1989},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1989}
}

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  • A diagnostic modeling study is described of the chemistry of two cold-frontal rainbands that were observed on the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. A modified version of the Hegg et al (1989) cloud microphysics-chemistry model is used to simulate a narrow cold-frontal rainband and a wide cold-frontal rainband. The contribution of the pathways for oxidizing aqueous sulfur dioxide is examined for each rainband. In the narrow cold-frontal rainband, iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidation contributed the most to the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide, but oxidation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide also contributed significantly. In the wide cold-frontal rainband, oxidation by hydrogenmore » peroxide was the greatest contributor towards the rear of the band, and iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidation and oxidation by ozone contributed the most at the leading edge of the band. Surface sulfate deposition rates from the wide cold-frontal rainband predicted by the model were up to five times greater than those derived from measurements, most likely due to high input concentrations of sulfur dioxide and aerosol sulfate. Surface nitrate deposition rates from the wide cold-frontal rainband predicted by the model were up to eight times smaller than those derived from measurements, most likely due to low input concentrations of aqueous nitrate precursors. When the two rainbands were allowed to interact, by having the narrow cold-frontal rainband process the air that entered the wide cold-frontal rainband that followed it, the total sulfate deposition from both the narrow and wide cold-frontal rainbands decreased by only 2 percent. The total nitrate deposition remained essentially unchanged when the rainbands were allowed to interact.« less
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