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Title: Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2

Abstract

A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5602591
Report Number(s):
DOE/MC/11076-3064
ON: DE92001146
DOE Contract Number:  
FC21-86MC11076
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; AIR; INJECTION; OIL SHALES; IN-SITU RETORTING; EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING; EXPLOSIVES; FIELD TESTS; INJECTION WELLS; PERMEABILITY; BITUMINOUS MATERIALS; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DECOMPOSITION; ENERGY SOURCES; FLUIDS; FOSSIL FUELS; FRACTURING; FUELS; GASES; IN-SITU PROCESSING; INTAKE; MATERIALS; PROCESSING; RETORTING; ROCKS; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; SHALES; TESTING; WELLS; 040401* - Oil Shales & Tar Sands- In Situ Methods, True & Modified

Citation Formats

Lekas, M.A., Lekas, J.M., and Strickland, F.G. Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2. United States: N. p., 1991. Web. doi:10.2172/5602591.
Lekas, M.A., Lekas, J.M., & Strickland, F.G. Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2. United States. doi:10.2172/5602591.
Lekas, M.A., Lekas, J.M., and Strickland, F.G. Wed . "Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2". United States. doi:10.2172/5602591. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5602591.
@article{osti_5602591,
title = {Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2},
author = {Lekas, M.A. and Lekas, J.M. and Strickland, F.G.},
abstractNote = {A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.},
doi = {10.2172/5602591},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1991},
month = {Wed May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1991}
}

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