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Title: Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period

Abstract

The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblasst cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this criticalmore » period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX
OSTI Identifier:
5588942
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environ. Health Perspect.; (United States); Journal Volume: 74
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; PREGNANCY; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; STEROIDS; BIOSYNTHESIS; XENOBIOTICS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; HCG; MICROTUBULES; PEPTIDE HORMONES; PLACENTA; RATS; RISK ASSESSMENT; ANIMALS; CELL CONSTITUENTS; FETAL MEMBRANES; GONADOTROPINS; HORMONES; MAMMALS; MEMBRANES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PITUITARY HORMONES; RODENTS; SYNTHESIS; VERTEBRATES; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Glasser, S.R., Julian, J., Munir, M.I., and Soares, M.J. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period. United States: N. p., 1987. Web. doi:10.1289/ehp.8774129.
Glasser, S.R., Julian, J., Munir, M.I., & Soares, M.J. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period. United States. doi:10.1289/ehp.8774129.
Glasser, S.R., Julian, J., Munir, M.I., and Soares, M.J. Thu . "Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period". United States. doi:10.1289/ehp.8774129.
@article{osti_5588942,
title = {Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period},
author = {Glasser, S.R. and Julian, J. and Munir, M.I. and Soares, M.J.},
abstractNote = {The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblasst cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this critical period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced.},
doi = {10.1289/ehp.8774129},
journal = {Environ. Health Perspect.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 74,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 1987},
month = {Thu Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 1987}
}
  • Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledgemore » about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8.5, becomes drastically reduced by E10.5 and is undetectable by E12.5. In conclusion, this study reveals novel aspects of the decidual SA muscular coat phenotype prior to and during early SAR that may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of SAR.« less
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