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Title: TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

Abstract

TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. (Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (Russian Federation))
  2. (Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Institute'' (Russian Federation))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5587825
Report Number(s):
CONF-930103-
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-243X; CODEN: APCPCS
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings (American Institute of Physics); (United States); Journal Volume: 271:2; Conference: 10. symposium on space nuclear power and propulsion, Albuquerque, NM (United States), 10-14 Jan 1993
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; TOPAZ REACTOR; SAFETY ANALYSIS; CONTROL ELEMENTS; CONTROL ROD DRIVES; NEUTRON REFLECTORS; REACTOR SAFETY; REACTOR START-UP; SPACE POWER REACTORS; SUBCRITICALITY; EXPERIMENTAL REACTORS; HYDRIDE MODERATED REACTORS; MOBILE REACTORS; OPERATION; POWER REACTORS; REACTOR COMPONENTS; REACTOR OPERATION; REACTORS; RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS; SAFETY; START-UP; NESDPS Office of Nuclear Energy Space and Defense Power Systems; 210600* - Power Reactors, Auxiliary, Mobile Package, & Transportable; 220900 - Nuclear Reactor Technology- Reactor Safety

Citation Formats

Nikitin, V.P., Ogloblin, B.G., Lutov, Y.I., Luppov, A.N., Shalaev, A.I., Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N., Usov, V.A., and Nechaev, Y.A. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.1063/1.43143.
Nikitin, V.P., Ogloblin, B.G., Lutov, Y.I., Luppov, A.N., Shalaev, A.I., Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N., Usov, V.A., & Nechaev, Y.A. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance. United States. doi:10.1063/1.43143.
Nikitin, V.P., Ogloblin, B.G., Lutov, Y.I., Luppov, A.N., Shalaev, A.I., Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N., Usov, V.A., and Nechaev, Y.A. 1993. "TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance". United States. doi:10.1063/1.43143.
@article{osti_5587825,
title = {TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance},
author = {Nikitin, V.P. and Ogloblin, B.G. and Lutov, Y.I. and Luppov, A.N. and Shalaev, A.I. and Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N. and Usov, V.A. and Nechaev, Y.A.},
abstractNote = {TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.},
doi = {10.1063/1.43143},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings (American Institute of Physics); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 271:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1993,
month = 1
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • This paper describes characteristics of the TOPAZ Reactors for space power applications developed in the USSR. TOPAZ-2 has been shown to be useful for satellites and for lunar or Martian bases. It can be coupled with a Stirling engine. TOPAZ-3 reactor provides greater power levels while TOPAZ-4 has an improved multicell thermionic fuel element. (AIP)
  • The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers whomore » were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses.« less
  • A safety analysis is conducted for TOPAZ-2 reactor. (AIP)
  • The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis ofmore » normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.« less