skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Algorithms can predict; inhibitors can control NORM scale. [Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material]

Abstract

Formation of the most common naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) containing scale, barium sulfate (BaSO[sub 4]), can be effectively predicted and controlled based on water chemistry and selecting the most effective scale inhibitors. Several relatively simple equations can indicate if sulfate scales will form in wells and surface production facilities. For control of BaSO[sub 4] scale, laboratory tests showed phosphinopolycarboxylate to be an effective scale inhibitor under the conditions tested. Some oil field scales have the potential to contain regulated levels of NORM, generally in the form of radium 226. The uncertainties in the amount of material produced and the low average radionuclide content make it difficult to assess the risk of NORM. The paper discusses BaSO[sub 4] occurrence, the prediction algorithm, a Michigan basin study, scale treatment, and testing scale inhibitors.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Water Research Inst. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)
  2. Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5500946
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Oil and Gas Journal; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 92:1; Journal ID: ISSN 0030-1388
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; CORROSION INHIBITORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; NATURAL GAS WELLS; SCALE CONTROL; OIL WELLS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT; RADIUM 226; ALKALINE EARTH ISOTOPES; ALPHA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CARBON 14 DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CONTROL; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; HEAVY ION DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; HEAVY NUCLEI; ISOTOPES; MANAGEMENT; NUCLEI; RADIOISOTOPES; RADIUM ISOTOPES; TESTING; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WELLS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 020800* - Petroleum- Waste Management; 030700 - Natural Gas- Waste Management

Citation Formats

Oddo, J E, and Tomson, M B. Algorithms can predict; inhibitors can control NORM scale. [Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material]. United States: N. p., 1993. Web.
Oddo, J E, & Tomson, M B. Algorithms can predict; inhibitors can control NORM scale. [Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material]. United States.
Oddo, J E, and Tomson, M B. Sun . "Algorithms can predict; inhibitors can control NORM scale. [Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material]". United States.
@article{osti_5500946,
title = {Algorithms can predict; inhibitors can control NORM scale. [Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material]},
author = {Oddo, J E and Tomson, M B},
abstractNote = {Formation of the most common naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) containing scale, barium sulfate (BaSO[sub 4]), can be effectively predicted and controlled based on water chemistry and selecting the most effective scale inhibitors. Several relatively simple equations can indicate if sulfate scales will form in wells and surface production facilities. For control of BaSO[sub 4] scale, laboratory tests showed phosphinopolycarboxylate to be an effective scale inhibitor under the conditions tested. Some oil field scales have the potential to contain regulated levels of NORM, generally in the form of radium 226. The uncertainties in the amount of material produced and the low average radionuclide content make it difficult to assess the risk of NORM. The paper discusses BaSO[sub 4] occurrence, the prediction algorithm, a Michigan basin study, scale treatment, and testing scale inhibitors.},
doi = {},
journal = {Oil and Gas Journal; (United States)},
issn = {0030-1388},
number = ,
volume = 92:1,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {1}
}