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Title: Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

Abstract

In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m{sup 2}, and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods.

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5431510
Report Number(s):
CONF-881011-
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-018X; CODEN: TANSA; TRN: 89-030973
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; (USA); Journal Volume: 57; Conference: Joint meeting of the European Nuclear Society and the American Nuclear Society, Washington, DC (USA), 30 Oct - 4 Nov 1988
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; NORWAY; RADIATION DOSES; ECONOMIC IMPACT; ANIMAL FEEDS; BERRIES; CESIUM 137; DEPOSITION; FINLAND; FISHES; FOOD CHAINS; FRUITS; GOATS; INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; LETTUCE; MILK PRODUCTS; MITIGATION; RADIOECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; SHEEP; SWEDEN; TOURISM; VEGETABLES; ACCIDENTS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; DOSES; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; EUROPE; FOOD; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MAGNOLIOPHYTA; MAGNOLIOPSIDA; MAMMALS; MASS TRANSFER; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; PLANTS; POWER REACTORS; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTORS; RUMINANTS; SCANDINAVIA; THERMAL REACTORS; VERTEBRATES; WATER COOLED REACTORS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 220900* - Nuclear Reactor Technology- Reactor Safety; 210300 - Power Reactors, Nonbreeding, Graphite Moderated; 500300 - Environment, Atmospheric- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- (-1989); 520300 - Environment, Aquatic- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- (1989); 510300 - Environment, Terrestrial- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Tveten, U. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Tveten, U. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987. United States.
Tveten, U. 1988. "Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5431510,
title = {Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987},
author = {Tveten, U.},
abstractNote = {In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m{sup 2}, and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods.},
doi = {},
journal = {Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month = 1
}

Conference:
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  • Even now, 10 yr after the Chernobyl accident, the consequences are felt in some Western European countries, particularly in Norway, where considerable yearly economic consequences to Norwegian agriculture are incurred. This paper summarizes these economic consequences year by year over the 10-yr period and describes the various countermeasures adopted to reduce the consequences. The consequences are mainly connected to the production of mutton and reindeer meat.
  • The objective of this work is to assess the source term and to evaluate the maximum hypothetical individual doses in European countries (including the Soviet Union) from the Chernobyl accident through the analyses of measurements of meteorological data, radiation fields, and airborne and deposited activity in these countries. Applying this information to deduce the source term involves a reversal of the techniques of nuclear accident analysis, which estimate the off-site consequences of postulated accidents. In this study the authors predict the quantities of radionuclides that, if released at Chernobyl and following the calculated trajectories, would explain and unify the observedmore » radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations as measured by European countries and the Soviet Union. The simulation uses the PEAR microcomputer program following the methodology described in Canadian Standards Association standard N288.2. The study was performed before the Soviets published their estimate of the source term and the two results are compared.« less
  • In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although openmore » questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.« less
  • Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault andmore » reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union.« less