skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment

Abstract

Visual changes may develop in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms in and about the optic nerve and anterior visual pathway. Cases have been studied using a series of psychophysical tests, including kinetic perimetry, increment threshold determinations, Flashing Repeat Static Test, and sustained- and transient-like functions. A characteristic time-dependent reduction in sensitivity has been identified in these patients. This finding, in addition to the presence of nerve fiber bundle defects, appears to place the pathologic changes in the axon of the ganglion cell posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Any change in the sustained- and transient-like functions, the organization of which appears to be in the neural retina, was seen only if a concomitant radiation retinopathy was identified.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5390851
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago); (United States); Journal Volume: 99:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; CARCINOMAS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; VISION; PATHOLOGY; PATIENTS; RADIONUCLIDE KINETICS; RADIOSENSITIVITY; RADIOTHERAPY; RETINA; SIDE EFFECTS; TIME DEPENDENCE; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BODY; BODY AREAS; DISEASES; EYES; FACE; HEAD; MEDICINE; NEOPLASMS; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ORGANS; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIOLOGY; SENSE ORGANS; THERAPY; 550603* - Medicine- External Radiation in Therapy- (1980-); 560151 - Radiation Effects on Animals- Man

Citation Formats

Fitzgerald, C.R., Enoch, J.M., and Temme, L.A.. Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.1001/archopht.1981.03930010611005.
Fitzgerald, C.R., Enoch, J.M., & Temme, L.A.. Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment. United States. doi:10.1001/archopht.1981.03930010611005.
Fitzgerald, C.R., Enoch, J.M., and Temme, L.A.. 1981. "Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment". United States. doi:10.1001/archopht.1981.03930010611005.
@article{osti_5390851,
title = {Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment},
author = {Fitzgerald, C.R. and Enoch, J.M. and Temme, L.A.},
abstractNote = {Visual changes may develop in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms in and about the optic nerve and anterior visual pathway. Cases have been studied using a series of psychophysical tests, including kinetic perimetry, increment threshold determinations, Flashing Repeat Static Test, and sustained- and transient-like functions. A characteristic time-dependent reduction in sensitivity has been identified in these patients. This finding, in addition to the presence of nerve fiber bundle defects, appears to place the pathologic changes in the axon of the ganglion cell posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Any change in the sustained- and transient-like functions, the organization of which appears to be in the neural retina, was seen only if a concomitant radiation retinopathy was identified.},
doi = {10.1001/archopht.1981.03930010611005},
journal = {Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 99:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 4
}
  • Visual changes may develop in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms in and about the optic nerve and anterior visual pathway. Cases have been studied using a series of psychophysical tests, including kinetic perimetry, increment threshold determinations, Flashing Repeat Static Test, and sustained- and transient-like functions. A characteristic time-dependent reduction in sensitivity has been identified in these patients. This finding, in addition to the presence of nerve fiber bundle defects, appears to place the pathologic changes in the axon of the ganglion cell posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Any change in the sustained- and transient-like functions, the organization ofmore » which appears to be in the neural retina, was seen only if a concomitant radiation retinopathy was identified.« less
  • Purpose: To assess visual outcome prospectively after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in children with optic pathway glioma. Methods and Materials: We used CRT to treat optic pathway glioma in 20 children (median age 9.3 years) between July 1997 and January 2002. We assessed changes in visual acuity using the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution after CRT (54 Gy) with a median follow-up of 24 months. We included in the study children who underwent chemotherapy (8 patients) or resection (9 patients) before CRT. Results: Surgery played a major role in determining baseline (pre-CRT) visual acuity (better eye: P=.0431; worsemore » eye: P=.0032). The visual acuity in the worse eye was diminished at baseline (borderline significant) with administration of chemotherapy before CRT (P=.0726) and progression of disease prior to receiving CRT (P=.0220). In the worse eye, improvement in visual acuity was observed in patients who did not receive chemotherapy before CRT (P=.0289). Conclusions: Children with optic pathway glioma initially treated with chemotherapy prior to receiving radiation therapy have decreased visual acuity compared with those who receive primary radiation therapy. Limited surgery before radiation therapy may have a role in preserving visual acuity.« less
  • Optic nerve sheath meningiomas, formerly thought to be rare, have been encountered with surprising frequency since the widespread use of computed tomography. Early diagnosis led to an enthusiastic surgical approach to these lesions, but this has been tempered by the realization that even in the best of hands, blindness followed such surgery with distressing frequency. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas may be divided into primary, secondary, and multiple meningioma groups. Five patients with primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas treated with irradiation therapy are presented in this report. Improvement in visual acuity, stabilization to increase in the visual field, and decrease inmore » size to total regression of optociliary veins, have been documented following irradiation therapy of the posterior orbital and intracanalicular portions of the optic nerve in some of these cases. Although each patient must be carefully individualized, there is no question that visual palliation can be achieved in some cases of optic nerve sheath meningioma. Further investigation of this therapeutic modality in selected cases in advised.« less
  • In the iris, congestion, sometimes miosis, exudate, and hemorrhage were observed immediately after the first irradiation. The effects were transitory and disappeared rapidly. When the irradiation was repeated, aggravation and recurrence were not observed. The minimum destruc tive dose was 240--400 mg hr in full-grown rabbits and 100--160 mg hr in infantile rabbits; the latter were more susceptible than the former. Irradiation through the conjunctival sac had more influence on the eyes than through the palpebra; however, on radiation with a dose of more than 400 mg hr no difference between the two was seen. Histologically, cell infiltration in themore » iris and ciliary body and hemorrhages into the ciliary body were observed: there was no marked change in the retinochoroid. (Abstr. Japan Med., 2: No. 6, June 1962)« less
  • Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2′-, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developingmore » rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. • The retina exhibits diminished neurotrophin levels and cellular differentiation. • The toxic effect is apoptotic.« less