skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine

Abstract

Sodium axide produces high mutation rates in a number of species. Azide mutagenicity is mediated through a metabolite in barley and bacteria. Many studies showed that azide affects the L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Cell-free extracts of Salmonella typhimurium convert azide and O-acetylserine to the mutagenic metabolite. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis. To confirm the conclusion that the azide metabolite is formed through the ..beta..-substitution pathway of L-cysteine, we radioactively labeled the azide metabolite using /sup 14/C-labeled precursors. Moreover, the mutagenic azide metabolite was purified and identified as azidoalanine based on mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA); Yarmouk Univ., Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Biological Sciences
OSTI Identifier:
5385325
Report Number(s):
DOE/EV/72002-59
ON: DE86015353
DOE Contract Number:
AT06-76EV72002
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AZIDES; METABOLITES; MUTAGENESIS; ALANINES; CARBON 14 COMPOUNDS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; INFRARED SPECTRA; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; SALMONELLA; THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY; TRACER TECHNIQUES; AMINO ACIDS; BACTERIA; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; DATA; INFORMATION; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NUMERICAL DATA; ORGANIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SPECTRA; SPECTROSCOPY; 560301* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Cells- (-1987); 550501 - Metabolism- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Owais, W.M., Rosichan, J.L., Ronald, R.C., Kleinhofs, A., and Nilan, R.A. Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Owais, W.M., Rosichan, J.L., Ronald, R.C., Kleinhofs, A., & Nilan, R.A. Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine. United States.
Owais, W.M., Rosichan, J.L., Ronald, R.C., Kleinhofs, A., and Nilan, R.A. 1981. "Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5385325,
title = {Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine},
author = {Owais, W.M. and Rosichan, J.L. and Ronald, R.C. and Kleinhofs, A. and Nilan, R.A.},
abstractNote = {Sodium axide produces high mutation rates in a number of species. Azide mutagenicity is mediated through a metabolite in barley and bacteria. Many studies showed that azide affects the L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Cell-free extracts of Salmonella typhimurium convert azide and O-acetylserine to the mutagenic metabolite. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis. To confirm the conclusion that the azide metabolite is formed through the ..beta..-substitution pathway of L-cysteine, we radioactively labeled the azide metabolite using /sup 14/C-labeled precursors. Moreover, the mutagenic azide metabolite was purified and identified as azidoalanine based on mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 1
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share:
  • Sodium azide, particularly in the acid form, is a powerful mutagen in barley. Its mutagenicity is considerably enhanced when treatment solutions are below its pKa of 4.7, and the seeds are presoaked. Its mutagenicity in soybeans has also been shown. In the present study, it was shown that sodium azide was mutagenic in Pisum and its effectiveness is compared with that of ..gamma..-irradiation.
  • Major emphasis was placed on the development of the bioassay for azide and its utilization in understanding the fate of azide in treated barley seeds. Progress is reported from studies with barley and bacteria to elucidate the mechanism of mutagenic action of azide and the nature of the genetic changes it induces.
  • Biogeochemical activity is an ongoing and dynamic process due to bacterial activity in the subsurface. Bacteria contribute significantly to biotransformation of metals and radionuclides. As basic science reveals more information about specific mechanisms of bacterial-metal reduction, an even greater contribution of bacteria to biogeochemical activities is realized. An understanding and application of the mechanisms of metal and radionuclide reduction offers tremendous potential for development into bioremedial processes and technologies. Most bacteria are capable of biogeochemical transformation as a result of meeting nutrient requirements. These assimilatory mechanisms for metals transformation include production of small molecules that serve as electron shuttles formore » metal reduction. This contribution to biogeochemistry is small however due to only trace requirements for minerals by bacteria. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) reduce oxidized metals and insoluble mineral oxides as a means for biological energy production during growth. These types of bacteria offer considerable potential for bioremediation of environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides because of the relatively large amount of metal biotransformation they require for growth. One of the mechanisms employed by some DMRB for electron transfer to insoluble metal oxides is melanin production. The electrochemical properties of melanin provide this polymeric, humic-type compound with electron shuttling properties. Melanin, specifically, pyomelanin, increases the rate and degree of metal reduction in DMRB as a function of pyomelanin concentration. Due to its electron shuttling behavior, only low femtogram quantities per cell are required to significantly increase metal reduction capacity of DMRB. Melanin production is not limited to DMRB. In fact melanin is one of the most common pigments produced by biological systems. Numerous soil microorganisms produce melanin, contributing to about 2-4 percent of the humic fraction of soils. Our recent work has shown that melanin production by one species of bacteria could be used by other species for metal reduction. This melanin ''sharing'' is the area of focus for this project. In addition, melanin contributes to significant increases in metal reduction by both assimilatory and dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria. Stimulation of melanin production in the subsurface offers potential for accelerating metal reduction. Another focus of this project was to determine the potential of melanin production in portions of the Tims Branch watershed as it relates to metal and radionuclide immobilization in-situ.« less