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Title: Extension of Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar assisted heat pump project. Final report

Abstract

Ground coupled heat pump systems employing commercially available equipment have been installed and tested in three different climatic regions of the US in residential, commercial, and industrial building applications. These systems were automatically controlled to respond to load requirements and provided space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating. Results of the key technical and economic tradeoff work are presented. Component and configuration options are screened and a final cost effective design is justified. Final system design specifications are given. A complete preliminary design of a natural gas fired heat pump is reported, including a performance analysis. The market side economics of the system is examined, including load and system performance, system and utility energy cost summaries, and an economic analysis for new and retrofit systems. The impact of electric and gas utility interfaces with the system is discussed. The status of the natural gas and electric power utilities systems in the Colorado Springs area are assessed. Some options for commercializing the system are discussed. (LEW)

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5352235
Report Number(s):
DOE/CS/30207-T1
ON: DE81028539
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-79CS30207
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR SPACE HEATING; SOLAR-ASSISTED HEAT PUMPS; SOLAR WATER HEATING; COMMERCIALIZATION; DESIGN; ECONOMICS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; ECONOMIC IMPACT; ELECTRIC UTILITIES; GAS APPLIANCES; GAS UTILITIES; HEAT ENGINES; HEAT TRANSFER; INTERFACES; NATURAL GAS; PERFORMANCE; RELIABILITY; RETROFITTING; SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE; SOILS; SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING; SOLAR COLLECTORS; SPECIFICATIONS; TANKS; TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS; AIR CONDITIONERS; AIR CONDITIONING; APPLIANCES; CONTAINERS; ENERGY SOURCES; ENERGY STORAGE; ENERGY SYSTEMS; ENERGY TRANSFER; ENGINES; EQUIPMENT; FLUIDS; FOSSIL FUELS; FUEL GAS; FUELS; GAS FUELS; GASES; HEAT PUMPS; HEAT STORAGE; HEATING; HEATING SYSTEMS; PUBLIC UTILITIES; SOLAR AIR CONDITIONERS; SOLAR COOLING SYSTEMS; SOLAR EQUIPMENT; SOLAR HEATING; SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS; SPACE HEATING; STORAGE; TESTING; WATER HEATING; 140901* - Solar Thermal Utilization- Space Heating & Cooling

Citation Formats

Not Available. Extension of Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar assisted heat pump project. Final report. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Not Available. Extension of Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar assisted heat pump project. Final report. United States.
Not Available. 1981. "Extension of Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar assisted heat pump project. Final report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5352235,
title = {Extension of Phoenix/City of Colorado Springs solar assisted heat pump project. Final report},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {Ground coupled heat pump systems employing commercially available equipment have been installed and tested in three different climatic regions of the US in residential, commercial, and industrial building applications. These systems were automatically controlled to respond to load requirements and provided space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating. Results of the key technical and economic tradeoff work are presented. Component and configuration options are screened and a final cost effective design is justified. Final system design specifications are given. A complete preliminary design of a natural gas fired heat pump is reported, including a performance analysis. The market side economics of the system is examined, including load and system performance, system and utility energy cost summaries, and an economic analysis for new and retrofit systems. The impact of electric and gas utility interfaces with the system is discussed. The status of the natural gas and electric power utilities systems in the Colorado Springs area are assessed. Some options for commercializing the system are discussed. (LEW)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 7
}

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  • Three gas-driven heat pumps are being considered, which are a Wisconsin engine drive heat pump, a Stirling engine drive heat pump, and a gas turbine drive heat pump. Also considered is an electric driven heat pump. Cost effectiveness of both the electric driven and gas fired solar-assisted heat pumps is demonstrated by comparing the present value of the system over its 20 year life with the present value of the fuel saved in Denver and Colorado Springs. The opinions of the local electric utilities for both cities and the natural gas pipeline company are briefly discussed. (LEW)
  • The work completed to date in documenting the design of packaged Solar Assisted Optimized Heat Pump (SAOHP) systems as a step towards stimulating the advancement of an industrial, commercial, and professional capability for producing and distributing this type of system is covered. The SAOHP system consists of a collector group, a storage group, and an energy transport group. The design for the collector group with first tier parts and assembly lists are included, along with the energy transport group designs for the smaller capacity units. Rating curves are included for the 30,000 BtuH (2-/sup 1///sub 2/ ton) unit. A samplemore » program printout for the performance analysis program is presented. Climatic region definition work is included in complete form. The economic analysis format for making life cycle cost comparisons between various available heating and cooling systems and the SAOHP is included.« less
  • The design of packaged Solar Assisted Optimized Heat Pump (SAOHP) systems as a step towards stimulating the advancement of an industrial, commercial, and professional capability for producing and distributing this type of system is covered. The SAOHP system consists of a collector group, a ground coupled seasonal storage (GCSS) group, and an energy transport and distribution (ETD) group. The design for the collector group with first tier parts and assembly lists are included, along with the ETD group designs for the smaller capacity units. Rating curves are included for the 30,000 BtuH (2-1/2 ton), 36,000 BtuH (3 ton), 48,000 BtuHmore » (4 ton), 60,000 BtuH (5 ton) and 90,000 BtuH (7-1/2 ton) units. All system revisions have been completed and the results of these revisions documented. The system analysis program, modified to compliance with NBS 76-1137 during the second quarter, has been successfully generating daily, weekly and monthly energy balances. Reliability of the SAOHP system has been fair this quarter and problems occurring are documented. Climatic region definition work is included in complete form. The economic analysis format for making life cycle cost comparisons between various available heating and cooling systems and the SAOHP is included. A list of visitors, project photographs and presentations are included in the appendices.« less
  • The development of a solar assisted heat pump system and its operating characteristics is covered. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of prime importance to the operation of the system. The performance of the underground uninsulated steel tank containing water and using the ground as an additional thermal energy storage medium to act as a heat source and heat sink for the system is reported. The type and performance of the heat pump used is covered. The use of commercially available heat transfer fluid in the collector and heat pump evaporator thermal energy transfer system to eliminate corrosion, electrolysis, boiling,more » and freezing within the system is presented. The System Economic Analysis covers the cost of backup and system operating energy as a large economic factor that must be recognized. The Solar Assisted Heat Pump System is more attractive than other systems from an economic and operational point of view. (WDM)« less
  • Three areas of importance to the electric utilities are addressed, which relate to their interfacing with solar heating and cooling systems and other heating and cooling system applications. The work centers on the solar and electric heating systems and testing and their electric system interfacing on the Phoenix Project in conjunction with the City of Colorado Springs municipal utility. First, the thermal load itself is demonstrated to be dynamic and to change characteristics as residential buildings age. Remedial measures are recommended to minimize the impact of these dynamic characteristics to the electric utility. Second, the performance characteristics of an operationalmore » ground-coupled thermal energy storage system linked to fluid-cooled solar collectors and a series liquid-to-air heat pump are analyzed. The MITAS code is used as the analysis tool to develop validated operational temperature boundary heat transfer coefficients for the storage system. Seasonal performance data generated at the Phoenix Project is used for a validation basis. Third, the impact on the City Utility's electric system is developed for connecting various types of solar and electric-heating systems in various quantities from 1978 through 1984. The main impact statement centers on the average cost per kWh of generating and delivering electric power to all classes of customers when the heating systems are connected in various quantities. Traditional future power-supply study techniques are employed. Detailed information is provided on heating-system load factors, and their impact on the utility's electric system load factor. A preferred system is defined for use with the electric utility that employs seasonal thermal energy storage and a series-connected heat pump for both heating and cooling loads. It is demonstrated that the solar collector requirements of the preferred system is a function of climate.« less