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Title: Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

Abstract

Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period themore » potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA
OSTI Identifier:
5321984
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 37:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ARTEMIA; ONTOGENESIS; CADMIUM CHLORIDES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; ZINC CHLORIDES; GROWTH; INHIBITION; LARVAE; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; ARTHROPODS; BRANCHIOPODS; CADMIUM COMPOUNDS; CADMIUM HALIDES; CHLORIDES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; CRUSTACEANS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; INVERTEBRATES; ZINC COMPOUNDS; ZINC HALIDES; 560304* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Invertebrates- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Bagshaw, J.C., Rafiee, P., Matthews, C.O., and MacRae, T.H.. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1007/BF01607763.
Bagshaw, J.C., Rafiee, P., Matthews, C.O., & MacRae, T.H.. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae. United States. doi:10.1007/BF01607763.
Bagshaw, J.C., Rafiee, P., Matthews, C.O., and MacRae, T.H.. 1986. "Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae". United States. doi:10.1007/BF01607763.
@article{osti_5321984,
title = {Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae},
author = {Bagshaw, J.C. and Rafiee, P. and Matthews, C.O. and MacRae, T.H.},
abstractNote = {Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.},
doi = {10.1007/BF01607763},
journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 37:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 8
}
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