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Title: Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation

Abstract

Past disposal practices at munitions production facilities have generated numerous acres of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil. We determined the potential of the Fenton reagent (Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to remediate TNT contamination in water, aqueous extracts of contaminated soil, and soil-water slurries. The effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, solution pH, temperature, and initial TNT concentration on transformation and mineralization rates were evaluated. Treating an aqueous TNT solution (70 mg TNT L{sup -1}) with Fenton reagent (1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 80 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) in the dark resulted in 100% destruction of TNT within 24 h. This coincided with 40% mineralization. Subsequent exposure to light resulted in >90% mineralization. We observed generation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene within 15 min following Fenton oxidation of TNT. This indicates that initial TNT destruction likely occurs by methyl group oxidation and decarboxylation. Subsequent transformations involve nitro moiety removal with ring hydroxylation and cleavage, as evidenced by the stoichiometric recovery of TNT-nitrogen as NO{sub 3}{sup -} and production of oxalic acid as the primary C-containing end product. Upon exposure to light, Fe(II) was regenerated and the oxalate produced from 14C-TNT oxidation disappeared; this coincided with a decrease inmore » solution {sup 14}C activity. Similar observations were made when {sup 14}C-oxalic acid was the starting substrate. Fenton oxidation was also effective in destroying TNT in aqueous extracts of contaminated soil and soil-water slurries. Experimental data provide evidence that the Fenton reagent can effectively remediate TNT-contaminated water and soil. 39 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
530779
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Environmental Quality
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: PBD: Mar-Apr 1997
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; TNT; OXIDATION; SOILS; REMEDIAL ACTION; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; IRON; PH VALUE; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Li, Z M, Comfort, S D, and Shea, P J. Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation. United States: N. p., 1997. Web. doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600020020x.
Li, Z M, Comfort, S D, & Shea, P J. Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation. United States. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600020020x
Li, Z M, Comfort, S D, and Shea, P J. Sat . "Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation". United States. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600020020x.
@article{osti_530779,
title = {Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation},
author = {Li, Z M and Comfort, S D and Shea, P J},
abstractNote = {Past disposal practices at munitions production facilities have generated numerous acres of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil. We determined the potential of the Fenton reagent (Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to remediate TNT contamination in water, aqueous extracts of contaminated soil, and soil-water slurries. The effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, solution pH, temperature, and initial TNT concentration on transformation and mineralization rates were evaluated. Treating an aqueous TNT solution (70 mg TNT L{sup -1}) with Fenton reagent (1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 80 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) in the dark resulted in 100% destruction of TNT within 24 h. This coincided with 40% mineralization. Subsequent exposure to light resulted in >90% mineralization. We observed generation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene within 15 min following Fenton oxidation of TNT. This indicates that initial TNT destruction likely occurs by methyl group oxidation and decarboxylation. Subsequent transformations involve nitro moiety removal with ring hydroxylation and cleavage, as evidenced by the stoichiometric recovery of TNT-nitrogen as NO{sub 3}{sup -} and production of oxalic acid as the primary C-containing end product. Upon exposure to light, Fe(II) was regenerated and the oxalate produced from 14C-TNT oxidation disappeared; this coincided with a decrease in solution {sup 14}C activity. Similar observations were made when {sup 14}C-oxalic acid was the starting substrate. Fenton oxidation was also effective in destroying TNT in aqueous extracts of contaminated soil and soil-water slurries. Experimental data provide evidence that the Fenton reagent can effectively remediate TNT-contaminated water and soil. 39 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.},
doi = {10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600020020x},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/530779}, journal = {Journal of Environmental Quality},
number = 2,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {1997},
month = {3}
}