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Title: Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

Abstract

This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant tomore » groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5292997
Report Number(s):
UCRL-53155
ON: DE82016316; TRN: 82-013032
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACTINIDES; HYDROLYSIS; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CORROSION; CONTAINERS; COPPER; FISSION PRODUCTS; GLASS; LEACHING; GROUND WATER; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CORROSIVE EFFECTS; IRON; LEAD; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE; ENGINEERED SAFETY SYSTEMS; UNDERGROUND STORAGE; TITANIUM; BACKFILLING; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GRANITES; PH VALUE; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; CHALCOGENIDES; DATA; DECOMPOSITION; DISSOLUTION; ELEMENTS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; IGNEOUS ROCKS; INFORMATION; ISOTOPES; LYSIS; MANAGEMENT; MATERIALS; METALS; NUMERICAL DATA; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PLUTONIC ROCKS; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; ROCKS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SOLVOLYSIS; STORAGE; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTE STORAGE; WATER; 052002* - Nuclear Fuels- Waste Disposal & Storage; 053000 - Nuclear Fuels- Environmental Aspects; 054000 - Nuclear Fuels- Health & Safety; 510301 - Environment, Terrestrial- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- Soil- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Rydberg, J. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.2172/5292997.
Rydberg, J. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock. United States. doi:10.2172/5292997.
Rydberg, J. Tue . "Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock". United States. doi:10.2172/5292997. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5292997.
@article{osti_5292997,
title = {Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock},
author = {Rydberg, J.},
abstractNote = {This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.},
doi = {10.2172/5292997},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1981},
month = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1981}
}

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