skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima]

Abstract

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews:more » (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5283262
Report Number(s):
PNL-RAP-39
DOE Contract Number:
EY-76-C-06-1830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; ENERGY CONSERVATION; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS; PUBLIC OPINION; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; WASHINGTON; BUILDINGS; DISTRICT HEATING; ELECTRIC UTILITIES; ICES; LAND USE; RATE STRUCTURE; VEHICLES; HEATING; NORTH AMERICA; PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION; PUBLIC UTILITIES; USA; 291000* - Energy Planning & Policy- Conservation; 290200 - Energy Planning & Policy- Economics & Sociology; 290300 - Energy Planning & Policy- Environment, Health, & Safety; 530100 - Environmental-Social Aspects of Energy Technologies- Social & Economic Studies- (-1989); 530200 - Environmental-Social Aspects of Energy Technologies- Assessment of Energy Technologies- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Edelson, E., and Olsen, M. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima]. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.2172/5283262.
Edelson, E., & Olsen, M. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima]. United States. doi:10.2172/5283262.
Edelson, E., and Olsen, M. Sat . "Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima]". United States. doi:10.2172/5283262. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5283262.
@article{osti_5283262,
title = {Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima]},
author = {Edelson, E. and Olsen, M.},
abstractNote = {The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)},
doi = {10.2172/5283262},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1980},
month = {Sat Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1980}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is examined with respect to its implementation by EPA and its impacts on DOE. Generic implementation problems are identified, and implementation of the act is assessed from the perspectives of Congress, the EPA, the courts, and the states. The major findings of this study are: the short-term implementation scenario (1978--1983) is likely to be dominated by state and local political processes and regulatory activities; RCRA implementation is likely to be interpreted and guided by litigation; the resource and energy recovery aspects of RCRA (Subtitle E) are being ignored relative to themore » hazardous waste aspects of RCRA (Subtitle C); expanded public participation under RCRA is delaying the implementation of the act and may lead to increased litigation; and the long-term implementation scenario (after 1983) is difficult to project due to present uncertainty and necessary reauthorization by Congress in 1979. 30 references.« less
  • Impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 on two coal-fired generating plants and their operations were studied by reviewing relevant characteristics of the plants, their host communities, and their host states. The two plants, which are privately owned but whose power is committed to the DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, are Clifty Creek Power Plant in Indiana and Kyger Creek Power Plant in Ohio. Assuming that ponding is an acceptable means of ash disposal, Clifty Creek should not be greatly impacted by RCRA unless local interests are concerned with the designation of the facility as amore » hazardous waste disposal site if ash is designated as hazardous by EPA. Kyger Creek may be impacted more due to marginally insufficient ponding capacity and an uncertain air pollution abatement future in Ohio (whether scrubbers will be required). The host communities are not likely to impose more stringent regulations and standards than EPA. Both of the host states are implementing RCRA but have insufficient resources to comply with mandated deadlines. It is quite likely that designation of hazardous waste facilities, generally, will invoke serious debate and possible opposition in host communities. Direct-combustion power plants, as a class, may be adversely affected by RCRA. Information flow to all coal users and waste generators must be assured to lessenthe costs of compliance with RCRA. Smaller facilities and entities are likely to be more adversely impacted by RCRA than large installations and industries.« less
  • Estimates of some energy and environmental impacts for five different energy-conservation measures (district heating, industrial cogeneration, retrofit, rate reform, and vehicle redesign) were prepared for two different regions (Middle Atlantic and Pacific) and two different time periods (1985 and 2000) based upon data presented in regional reference energy systems developed at BNL. Results of the analysis indicate that regional energy use can be reduced by <1 to 6%. Vehicle redesign produces the greatest oil savings. Retrofit and district heating can each reduce oil and natural gas use. Industrial cogeneration can significantly reduce use of fuels consumed in central-station electricity productionmore » (e.g., coal and nuclear) but at an energy penalty incurred by industry: increased dependence on oil and natural gas could result. Rate reform and retrofit each reduce emissions production in rough proportion to the quantities of energy saved. Vehicle redesign reduces only supply sector emissions; end-use emissions are not affected even though gasoline use significantly decreases. District heating may reduce regional emissions but increase local emission burdens where waste heat is being produced. Local air quality need not be adversely affected, although long-range-transport potential increases. The district-heating concept may also have important effects on future power-plant siting options. Depending on the mix of fuels consumed, industrial cogeneration could increase regional emissions production because of the potential substitution of dirty fuels (coal, industrial wastes, and oil) for clean fuels (natural gas and nuclear); this may be particularly important in the Pacific region. In general, per unit reductions in electrical demand appear to produce greater environmental benefits than equivalent reductions in fuels used directly in an end-use device.« less
  • This document presents an environmental analysis of potential implementation of a variety of BPA-prescribed audit-based electrical energy conservation measures (AEECMs) in ten Pacific Northwest industries. These AEECMs included four categories of generic measures which could be applied in any of the ten industries, as well as a number of individual measures specific to the industries. The generic measures include energy-efficient motors, motor controllers, lighting, and operations and maintenance (O and M) measures. The study examines regional environmental data and federal and state regulations. By profiling representative facilities in the ten industries, existing air, water quality, solid waste, noise, and occupationalmore » health characteristics of the ten industries were developed. From these baseline conditions, an environmental analysis of the AEECMs was prepared. These assessments identify how the environmental conditions within the industry are expected to change as a result of implementing the AEECMs, and how adverse effects can be mitigated and at what cost. The assessments also address economic costs of the measures, labor requirements for their installation and maintenance, and the effects of the measures on contaminant concentrations and resultant effects on worker health. 91 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.« less
  • The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to differentmore » energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.« less