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Title: Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes

Abstract

The high density and atomic number of bismuth germanate (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ or BGO) make it a very useful detector for positron emission tomography. Modern tomograph designs use large numbers of small, closely-packed crystals for high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. However, the low light output, the high refractive index (n=2.15), and the need for accurate timing make it important to optimize the transfer of light to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). We describe the results of a Monte Carlo computer program developed to study the effect of crystal shape, reflector type, and the refractive index of the PMT window on coupling efficiency. The program simulates total internal, external, and Fresnel reflection as well as internal absorption and scattering by bubbles.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5253581
Report Number(s):
LBL-13486; CONF-811012-51
ON: DE82004845; TRN: 82-016367
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: IEEE symposium on nuclear science, San Francisco, CA, USA, 21 Oct 1981
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; GERMANATES; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; PERFORMANCE; TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PHOTOTUBES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; 440101* - Radiation Instrumentation- General Detectors or Monitors & Radiometric Instruments; 360603 - Materials- Properties

Citation Formats

Derenzo, S E, and Riles, J K. Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Derenzo, S E, & Riles, J K. Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes. United States.
Derenzo, S E, and Riles, J K. Thu . "Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5253581.
@article{osti_5253581,
title = {Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes},
author = {Derenzo, S E and Riles, J K},
abstractNote = {The high density and atomic number of bismuth germanate (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ or BGO) make it a very useful detector for positron emission tomography. Modern tomograph designs use large numbers of small, closely-packed crystals for high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. However, the low light output, the high refractive index (n=2.15), and the need for accurate timing make it important to optimize the transfer of light to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). We describe the results of a Monte Carlo computer program developed to study the effect of crystal shape, reflector type, and the refractive index of the PMT window on coupling efficiency. The program simulates total internal, external, and Fresnel reflection as well as internal absorption and scattering by bubbles.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5253581}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1981},
month = {10}
}

Conference:
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