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Title: Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

Abstract

In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
5252724
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-9487
ON: DE85017150; TRN: 85-022854
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BODY; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PHANTOMS; DESIGN; A-BOMB SURVIVORS; PERSONNEL DOSIMETRY; DOSIMETRY; HUMAN POPULATIONS; MOCKUP; POPULATIONS; STRUCTURAL MODELS; 655003* - Medical Physics- Dosimetry

Citation Formats

Cristy, M. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. United States: N. p., 1985. Web. doi:10.2172/5252724.
Cristy, M. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. United States. doi:10.2172/5252724.
Cristy, M. Mon . "Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors". United States. doi:10.2172/5252724. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5252724.
@article{osti_5252724,
title = {Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors},
author = {Cristy, M.},
abstractNote = {In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.},
doi = {10.2172/5252724},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1985},
month = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1985}
}

Technical Report:

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  • A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (auth)
  • Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma inmore » air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults.« less
  • This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, asmore » were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)« less
  • Samples collected from 832 A-bomb survivors were analyzed for natural killer activity, interleukin production, interferon production, serum interferon levels, and circulating immune complex levels. The most striking finding was a significant radiation-sex interaction for NK activity. The NK of females exposed to 100+ rads was decreased compared to those exposed to 0 to 99 rads. A significant increase in NK activity with age ATB was observed, as well as an increase with age in circulating immune complex. (ACR)