skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Biological effects of magnetic fields from superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

Abstract

Physical interaction mechanisms and potential biological effects of static and slowly time-varying magnetic fields are summarized. The results of laboratory and human health studies on this topic are related to the fringe magnetic field levels anticipated to occur in the proximity of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. The observed biological effects of magnetic fields include: (1) magnetic induction of electrical potentials in the circulatory system and other tissues, (2) magneto-orientation of macromolecules and membranes in strong magnetic fields, and (3) Zeeman interactions with electronic spin states in certain classes of charge transfer reactions. In general, only the first of these interactions is relevant to the establishment of occupational exposure guidelines. Physical hazards posed by the interactions of magnetic fields with cardiac pacemakers and other implanted medical devices, e.g., aneurysm clips and prostheses, are important factors that must also be considered in establishing exposure guidelines. Proposed guidelines for limiting magnetic field exposure are discussed. 50 refs., 1 fig.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/NE
OSTI Identifier:
5222496
Report Number(s):
PNL-SA-17077; CONF-891208-27
ON: DE90004672
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Winter annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, San Francisco, CA (USA), 10-15 Dec 1989
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; MAGNETIC FIELDS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; MINIMIZATION; SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES; HEALTH HAZARDS; CARDIAC PACEMAKERS; ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS; OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY; RECOMMENDATIONS; SITE CHARACTERIZATION; ENERGY SYSTEMS; HAZARDS; SAFETY; 560400* - Other Environmental Pollutant Effects

Citation Formats

Tenforde, T.S. Biological effects of magnetic fields from superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Tenforde, T.S. Biological effects of magnetic fields from superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. United States.
Tenforde, T.S. 1989. "Biological effects of magnetic fields from superconducting magnetic energy storage systems". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5222496,
title = {Biological effects of magnetic fields from superconducting magnetic energy storage systems},
author = {Tenforde, T.S.},
abstractNote = {Physical interaction mechanisms and potential biological effects of static and slowly time-varying magnetic fields are summarized. The results of laboratory and human health studies on this topic are related to the fringe magnetic field levels anticipated to occur in the proximity of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. The observed biological effects of magnetic fields include: (1) magnetic induction of electrical potentials in the circulatory system and other tissues, (2) magneto-orientation of macromolecules and membranes in strong magnetic fields, and (3) Zeeman interactions with electronic spin states in certain classes of charge transfer reactions. In general, only the first of these interactions is relevant to the establishment of occupational exposure guidelines. Physical hazards posed by the interactions of magnetic fields with cardiac pacemakers and other implanted medical devices, e.g., aneurysm clips and prostheses, are important factors that must also be considered in establishing exposure guidelines. Proposed guidelines for limiting magnetic field exposure are discussed. 50 refs., 1 fig.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month =
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • This report provides a detailed evaluation of the potential biological effects of fringe magnetic fields associated with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) plant. The aspects of magnetic fields that are discussed include mechanisms of interaction of static and slowly time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; biological effects of magnetic fields on human and subhuman species, including the results of both laboratory studies and human epidemiological surveys; physical hazards posed by the interactions of magnetic fields with metallic implants, e.g., aneurysm clips and prostheses, and with medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers; extant guidelines for occupational exposure to magneticmore » fields are summarized; recommendations for defining acceptable levels of exposure to SMES magnetic fields by occupational personnel and the population-at-large; and recommendations concerning several areas of research that would further our understanding of magnetic field interactions with living systems, and would provide additional elements of information required for the development of future exposure standards. 328 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles weremore » measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.« less
  • Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)more » systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed.« less
  • Stabilization of a synchronous generator through control of firing angle of the converters in the super conducting magnetic systems is considered. An optimum strategy of the firing angle control is designed so as to eliminate the transients in minimum time. A nonlinear model of a synchronous generator, its governor and exciter systems, and a superconducting magnetic system connected to the generator terminal is considered. The optimum firing angle control is derived retaining the nonlinearities of the system dynamics. Digital simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy controls the slowly growing as well as first swing instabilities very effectively.
  • Some of the problems encountered in constructing superconducting switches for magnetic energy storage systems are discussed. Empirical rules are given which assure that a switch is driven fully normal when triggered, and some of the possible geometrical arrangements for switches are considered. Results of energy transfer experiments from 20 kJ and 300 kJ superconducting energy storage systems using superconducting switches are given. (auth)