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Title: Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine

Abstract

To identify the most rational method for adjusting adult radiopharmaceutical dosages for children, four methods of dosage computation were examined from the perspectives of diagnostic adequacy and radiation absorbed dose. For static imaging, information density is the most important factor in study quality, and adjustment of dosage by body weight (Wt) for thick organs, and body surface area (BSA) for thin organs is recommended. Compared with adults, small children receive less radiation exposure if radiopharmaceutical dosages are adjusted by Wt, and slightly greater exposure if dosages are adjusted by BSA. For dynamic imaging studies, dosage requirements are governed by the spatial resolution needed for region of interest assignment, and the statistical reliability of the time-activity data. For dynamic renal imaging, renograms of similar quality are obtained if dosages are adjusted by height (Ht). Dynamic cardiac studies might appear to require dosages even larger than those adjusted by Ht which would result in higher radiation absorbed doses to pediatric patients. However, smaller dosages can be used in children by prolonging the imaging time and accepting lower temporal resolution. Dosage requirements for dynamic studies depend on which physiologic characteristics are measured from the time-activity data. Since the measurements of some characteristics demandmore » higher count rates than others, dosage requirements ultimately depend on which measurements are clinically necessary. Close attention to the factors that determine these requirements may yield significant reduction in dosages, and thus in radiation exposure, for patients of all ages.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH
OSTI Identifier:
5205762
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5205762
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Nucl. Med.; (United States); Journal Volume: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS; DOSIMETRY; BRAIN; CHILDREN; IMAGES; LIVER; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; PEDIATRICS; RADIATION DOSES; SPLEEN; AGE GROUPS; BODY; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM; DOSES; DRUGS; GLANDS; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MEDICINE; NERVOUS SYSTEM; ORGANS 550601* -- Medicine-- Unsealed Radionuclides in Diagnostics; 560161 -- Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & Toxicology-- Man

Citation Formats

Shore, R.M., and Hendee, W.R. Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Shore, R.M., & Hendee, W.R. Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine. United States.
Shore, R.M., and Hendee, W.R. Sat . "Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5205762,
title = {Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine},
author = {Shore, R.M. and Hendee, W.R.},
abstractNote = {To identify the most rational method for adjusting adult radiopharmaceutical dosages for children, four methods of dosage computation were examined from the perspectives of diagnostic adequacy and radiation absorbed dose. For static imaging, information density is the most important factor in study quality, and adjustment of dosage by body weight (Wt) for thick organs, and body surface area (BSA) for thin organs is recommended. Compared with adults, small children receive less radiation exposure if radiopharmaceutical dosages are adjusted by Wt, and slightly greater exposure if dosages are adjusted by BSA. For dynamic imaging studies, dosage requirements are governed by the spatial resolution needed for region of interest assignment, and the statistical reliability of the time-activity data. For dynamic renal imaging, renograms of similar quality are obtained if dosages are adjusted by height (Ht). Dynamic cardiac studies might appear to require dosages even larger than those adjusted by Ht which would result in higher radiation absorbed doses to pediatric patients. However, smaller dosages can be used in children by prolonging the imaging time and accepting lower temporal resolution. Dosage requirements for dynamic studies depend on which physiologic characteristics are measured from the time-activity data. Since the measurements of some characteristics demand higher count rates than others, dosage requirements ultimately depend on which measurements are clinically necessary. Close attention to the factors that determine these requirements may yield significant reduction in dosages, and thus in radiation exposure, for patients of all ages.},
doi = {},
journal = {J. Nucl. Med.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1986},
month = {Sat Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1986}
}
  • In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle {sup 131}I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the {sup 131}I. The new fabricated of low cost {sup 131}I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of leadmore » material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of {sup 131} I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the {sup 131}I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of {sup 131}I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.« less
  • The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.
  • During the last few years, the number, variety, and complexity of nuclear medical examinations that can be performed in children have increased impressively, due partly to recent accomplishments in radiopharmaceutical development and the availability of gamma scintillation cameras and computer systems for acquisition, storage, and analysis of data. The reduction in radiation exposure with the new radiopharmaceuticals has helped to expand the scope of nuclear medical examinations in children to include not only the study or evaluation of suspected malignant disease but also the evaluation of nonmalignant disease and organ function in a number of body systems. Specific applications ofmore » nuclear medical techniques in children are discussed, with relation to the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, thyroid, lungs, heart and great vessels, liver and spleen, kidneys and bladder, and bone. (auth)« less
  • The applications of nuclear medicine in pediatrics have grown parallel with the development of higher resolution complementary imaging modalities such as computed tomography, ultrasound, digital angiography, and magnetic resonance. The purpose of this article is to present clinically significant advances in pediatric nuclear imaging, with emphasis on newer techniques less often associated with pediatric patients.91 references.